2006 Census Area Profiles

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Profile for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions and Dissemination Areas, 2006 Census

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General information

Catalogue number:94-581-XCB2006002
Release date:May 29, 2008
Topic:Income and earnings
Data dimensions:

Note

Note: Data Quality - Age at immigration

There was a slight overestimation of age at immigration in the 2006 Census. For more information on the age at immigration variable, please refer to the Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration Reference Guide, 2006 Census, catalogue number 97-557-GWE2006003.

Note: Data quality - Certificate or diploma below the bachelor level

The overall quality of the 'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' variable from the 2006 Census is acceptable. However, users of the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor level' category should know that an unexpected growth in this category was noted compared to the 2001 Census.

In fact, in the 2001 Census, 2.5% of respondents aged 15 years or over declared such a diploma, compared to 4.4% in 2006, representing 89% growth. This phenomenon was not found in other sources like the Labour Force Survey.

We recommend users interpret the 2006 Census results for this category with caution.

For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B: Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.

More information will be available in the Education Reference Guide, 2006 Census, to be published later in 2008.

Note: Data Quality - Historical earnings and income data and outliers

Changes in methodology and response modes introduced in the 2006 Census resulted in improved income data. However, these changes also mean that some comparisons with data from previous censuses and some data for the highest earnings and income amounts are affected.

For the 2006 Census, changes to methods for capturing and processing the 2006 Census income data and the introduction of data from tax files may have an impact on the trends analysis for earnings at the individual level in particular (but also total income).

There are more reported small amounts in 2006 and less rounding of the amounts that now come from tax data. To compare from census to census, users are advised to consider full-year full-time earners as the presence of more small amounts tends to lower the mean and median when considering the full population of earners.

As in the past, when considering small populations, one or more outliers may affect the average. In regions with sampling, this makes the estimate of the mean unreliable because of the variance due to sampling for smaller populations. The standard error of the average should help identify these situations. With extremely small populations, the median might also be affected by the presence of outliers. Users are required to interpret data with caution when the sub-population has small or very small counts.

Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.

Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).

Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.

Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.

Note: Data quality - Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux)

When comparing the census results to those of the 2001 Census, it appears that there is some overestimation of persons reporting Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux) in British Columbia and, as a result, also at the Canada level. Although it affects a relatively small population, it is best to apply caution when analysing the census data for Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux) in these geographies.

For more information on factors that may explain such variances in census data, such as response errors and processing errors, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Appendix B Data quality, sampling and weighting, confidentiality and random rounding.

Note: Broad occupational category A - Management occupations

Census data for occupation groups in Broad occupational category A - Management occupations should be used with caution. Some coding errors were made in assigning the appropriate level of management, e.g., senior manager as opposed to middle manager, and in determining the appropriate area of specialization or activity, e.g., a manager of a health care program in a hospital as opposed to a government manager in health policy administration. Some non-management occupations have also been miscoded to management due to confusion over titles such as program manager and project manager. Data users may wish to use data for management occupations in conjunction with other variables such as Income, Age and Education.

Note: Census family

A census family refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without children of either or both partners) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. 'Children' in a census family include grandchildren living with their grandparent(s) but with no parents present. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Note: Comparability of 2006 Place of work data

Working at home can be measured in different ways. In the census, the 'Worked at home' category includes persons who live and work at the same physical location, such as farmers, teleworkers and work camp workers. In addition, the 2006 Census Guide instructed persons who worked part of the time at home and part of the time at an employer's address to indicate that they 'Worked at home' if most of their time was spent working at home (e.g., three days out of five).

Other Statistics Canada surveys such as the General Social Survey, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, and the Workplace and Employee Survey also collect information on working at home. However, the survey data are not directly comparable to the census data since the surveys ask respondents whether they did some or all of their paid work at home, whereas the census asks them where they usually worked most of the time. Consequently, census estimates on work at home are lower than survey estimates.

The place-of-work question has remained in virtually the same format in each census since 1971. However, in 1996, the category 'No fixed workplace address' replaced 'No usual place of work.' In 1996, the census questionnaire was modified by adding a check box for the 'No fixed workplace' response category. In previous censuses, respondents were asked to write 'No usual place of work' in the address fields. It is believed that previous censuses have undercounted the number of persons with 'No fixed workplace address.'

Annexations, incorporations and amalgamations of municipalities could create some difficulties when comparing spatial units and structures which change over time.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Note: Dissemination of suppressed census subdivisions (CSDs) - 100% data

To facilitate the publication of data for seven dissemination areas for which the 'parent' CSDs have been suppressed due to a high non-response rate, the parent CSDs were given a value of 'null'. This 'null' value appears as a dash (-) in Beyond 20/20.

The list of suppressed CSDs set to 'null' are:

The CSD of Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier (2422025)
The CSD of Fort Albany (Part) 67 (3556093)
The CSD of Moosonee (3556106)
The CSD of Nekaneet Cree Nation (4704802)
The CSD of Stony Plain 135 (4811804)

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Note: Dissemination of suppressed census subdivisions (CSDs) - 20% sample data

To facilitate the publication of data for 19 dissemination areas for which the 'parent' CSDs have been suppressed due to a high non-response rate, the parent CSDs were given a value of 'null'. This 'null' value appears as a dash (-) in Beyond 20/20.

The list of suppressed CSDs set to 'null' are:

The CSD of Division No. 5, Subd. E (1005007)
The CSD of Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier (2422025)
The CSD of Fort Albany (Part) 67 (3556093)
The CSD of Moosonee (3556106)
The CSD of Nekaneet Cree Nation (4704802)
The CSD of Irricana (4806022)
The CSD of Stony Plain 135 (4811804)
The CSD of Smoky River No. 130 (4819041)
The CSD of New Songhees 1A (5917812)
The CSD of Thompson-Nicola I (Blue Sky Country) (5933037)
The CSD of Columbia-Shuswap F (5939044)

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Note: Dwelling universe

The dwelling universe pertains to characteristics of dwellings in Canada. Dwellings are distinct from households. Dwelling characteristics refer to the physical attributes of a set of living quarters, whereas household characteristics pertain to the person or the group of persons (other than temporary or foreign residents) who occupy a dwelling. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE or 92-566-XPE.

Additional information about this table is available in the Dimension Summary Box of the Profile.

Data table

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