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|Catalogue number :||97-563-XCB2006063|
|Release date :||September 30, 2008|
|Topic :||Income and earnings|
|Data dimensions :|
Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics
Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.
Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).
Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.
Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.
Note: Broad occupational category A - Management occupations
Census data for occupation groups in Broad occupational category A - Management occupations should be used with caution. Some coding errors were made in assigning the appropriate level of management, e.g., senior manager as opposed to middle manager, and in determining the appropriate area of specialization or activity, e.g., a manager of a health care program in a hospital as opposed to a government manager in health policy administration. Some non-management occupations have also been miscoded to management due to confusion over titles such as program manager and project manager. Data users may wish to use data for management occupations in conjunction with other variables such as Income, Age and Education.
Note: Earnings historical variations
Due to improved collection methodology, income and earnings data from the 2006 Census is more complete, precise and less subject to rounding than in prior censuses. Small dollar amounts, which in the past may not have been reported, are now more likely to be captured. Compared to prior censuses, this has resulted in an increased number of earners and lower median and average earnings. Users are advised to exercise caution when interpreting census-to-census changes in statistics and counts of specific cells within an earnings distribution. This comparability issue is less apparent when considering the earnings of full-year, full-time workers.
Note: Income Data for Seniors in Collective Dwellings
In the 2006 Census, individuals who resided in institutions or residences with distinct, separate living quarters, and who were able to complete the census questionnaire, received their own census form to complete. These individuals were excluded from measurements of income in prior censuses. This census their incomes have been set to zero. This results in a slight overestimation in the count of population 15 years and over, and primarily the age group 65 years and over, without income (or without earnings). Counts and income statistics for families or persons not in families are not affected, as individuals in these types of collective dwellings have always, and continue to be excluded from those populations.
Note: Income suppression
Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding institutional residents, is less than 250 from either the 100% or the 20% database, or if the number of private households is less than 40 from the 20% database.
Tables with income, after-tax income or earnings distributions
Income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income, average after-tax income or average earnings have been replaced with zeroes or symbols.
In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.
Tables with number and median or average income, after-tax income or earnings
Statistics have been suppressed if the estimated total number of persons (males, females or both sexes) with income, after-tax income or earnings in the reference year is less than 250 persons. All suppressed counts and associated averages and medians have been replaced by zeroes or symbols.
In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.
Note: Institutional residents
People in seniors' residences in the 2006 Census are classified as 'not living in an institution'. This is a change from the 2001 Census where they were classified as institutional residents, specifically, 'living in an institution, resident under care or custody'.
Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe
In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.
From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.
Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.
Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.
Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.
For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.
For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.
J111 Central Control and Process Operators, Mineral and Metal Processing
J121 Machine Operators, Mineral and Metal Processing
Data for J111 Central Control and Process Operators, Mineral and Metal Processing and J121 Machine Operators, Mineral and Metal Processing should be used with caution. There is some overlap of responses coded to these two groups as respondents do not always provide enough information to allow coders to distinguish between them.
J113 Pulping Control Operators
J142 Pulp Mill Machine Operators
Data for J113 Pulping Control Operators and J142 Pulp Mill Machine Operators should be used with caution. There is some overlap of responses coded to these two groups as respondents do not always provide enough information to allow coders to distinguish between them.
J114 Papermaking and Coating Control Operators
J143 Papermaking and Finishing Machine Operators
Data for J114 Papermaking and Coating Control Operators and J143 Papermaking and Finishing Machine Operators should be used with caution. There is some overlap of responses coded to these two groups as respondents do not always provide enough information to allow coders to distinguish between them.
J191 Machining Tool Operators
J192 Forging Machine Operators
J194 Metalworking Machine Operators
J196 Other Metal Products Machine Operators
J197 Other Products Machine Operators
Census data for these occupation groups should be used with caution. A high number of vague responses related to machine operators in car parts manufacturing has resulted in an over-estimate for occupation group J191 Machining Tool Operators. When compared with 2001 estimates, fluctuations in the data suggest inconsistency in the coding of these occupation groups between 2001 and 2006. In particular, J197 Other Products Machine Operators shows a relatively large decrease between 2001 and 2006. For these reasons, census data users may prefer to make historical comparisons at the three-digit minor group level for these occupations.
Additional information about this table is available in the Dimension Summary Box of the variable in the column (initial view).