Data tables, 2016 Census

Distribution of Income Between Married Spouses or Common-law Partners (47) and Characteristics of Couples (19) for Married Spouses or Common-law Partners in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Metropolitan Areas, 2016 Census - 100% Data

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This table details distribution of income between married spouses or common-law partners and characteristics of couples for married spouses or common-law partners in private households in Canada
Data quality
Distribution of income between married spouses or common-law partners (47) Characteristics of couple (19)
Total - Age of older person in couple 15 to 29 years 30 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and over Total - Total income of coupleFootnote 1 Under $20,000 (including loss) $20,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 to $99,999 $100,000 and over $100,000 to $124,999 $125,000 to $149,999 $150,000 to $199,999 $200,000 to $249,999 $250,000 and over
Total - Couples by distribution of income between married spouses or common-law partnersFootnote 2 8,227,925 461,000 3,947,405 1,801,965 2,017,555 8,227,920 264,820 335,815 589,455 590,695 624,705 1,252,935 1,143,795 3,425,705 1,122,985 780,815 829,465 320,595 371,845
Number of couples with total incomeFootnote 3 8,217,020 460,190 3,941,890 1,798,835 2,016,100 8,217,020 253,915 335,815 589,455 590,695 624,705 1,252,935 1,143,795 3,425,700 1,122,985 780,815 829,465 320,595 371,840
Median total income of couplesFootnote 4 87,688 68,524 103,436 92,304 62,425 87,688 11,932 26,696 34,969 45,090 55,016 69,910 89,599 142,892 111,481 136,257 169,443 219,351 330,431
Median total income of the higher income spouse 59,121 45,202 69,265 63,335 42,684 59,121 9,085 17,777 22,859 31,467 38,623 47,513 58,966 96,610 72,538 87,617 107,415 142,677 250,639
Median total income of the lower income spouseFootnote 5 25,015 21,079 31,598 25,531 17,504 25,015 759 8,038 11,947 13,452 16,232 22,041 30,711 49,310 39,404 48,889 62,523 78,606 90,111
Average share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 70.0 69.2 69.9 72.6 68.3 70.0 83.2 72.5 69.3 72.1 72.0 70.6 69.1 68.3 68.3 67.4 66.5 68.0 74.9
Median share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 67.1 66.2 66.3 69.5 66.2 67.1 89.5 68.4 65.4 70.2 70.5 68.3 66.0 65.1 65.1 64.3 63.1 64.4 74.4
A male is the higher total income recipientFootnote 6 5,705,065 321,050 2,657,605 1,227,490 1,498,915 5,705,065 146,395 217,155 408,255 388,850 420,845 863,255 797,150 2,463,165 795,490 550,470 589,255 240,085 287,875
A female is the higher total income recipientFootnote 7 2,511,955 139,140 1,284,290 571,340 517,185 2,511,955 107,520 118,660 181,195 201,845 203,865 389,680 346,650 962,535 327,500 230,345 240,210 80,515 83,970
Number of couples with two total income recipientsFootnote 8 7,889,570 441,965 3,792,420 1,677,580 1,977,600 7,889,570 179,230 305,115 562,385 562,575 596,645 1,206,800 1,110,880 3,365,940 1,100,030 768,425 818,375 315,660 363,455
Average share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 68.8 67.9 68.7 70.6 67.7 68.8 76.1 69.7 67.8 70.7 70.7 69.5 68.2 67.8 67.6 66.9 66.1 67.5 74.3
Median share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 66.1 65.3 65.4 68.1 66.0 66.1 77.0 65.4 64.5 69.2 69.4 67.4 65.2 64.5 64.4 64.2 63.0 64.2 74.1
One spouse/partner received 90% or more of couple's total income 925,520 41,390 476,460 271,065 136,605 925,525 52,235 57,810 62,415 72,585 68,115 130,100 118,775 363,485 112,085 68,135 69,275 32,800 81,180
One spouse/partner received 80% to 89.9% of couple's total income 967,620 50,560 432,495 218,290 266,280 967,620 29,540 30,760 50,880 79,160 94,775 184,345 140,670 357,485 119,460 70,875 70,885 33,350 62,915
One spouse/partner received 70% to 79.9% of couple's total income 1,394,705 80,915 628,935 287,075 397,780 1,394,705 28,875 42,720 93,850 122,145 133,555 229,815 184,170 559,570 178,875 129,555 132,650 52,735 65,760
One spouse/partner received 60% to 69.9% of couple's total income 1,970,390 119,140 949,710 390,870 510,670 1,970,390 28,085 58,030 160,535 138,640 142,710 292,775 275,120 874,495 295,005 218,665 213,240 78,395 69,185
One spouse/partner received 50% to 59.9% of couple's total income 2,631,335 149,970 1,304,825 510,275 666,260 2,631,330 40,495 115,795 194,705 150,050 157,485 369,760 392,140 1,210,905 394,600 281,195 332,320 118,375 84,415
A male is the higher total income recipientFootnote 9 5,478,645 308,970 2,567,110 1,134,545 1,468,025 5,478,640 99,260 199,415 391,890 370,390 401,090 829,565 773,415 2,413,615 777,400 540,065 579,790 235,835 280,525
A male received 90% or more of couple's total income 731,360 30,100 371,470 211,540 118,255 731,365 28,350 33,290 37,510 48,370 49,355 105,755 100,830 327,905 98,275 61,840 63,405 30,230 74,155
A male received 80% to 89.9% of couple's total income 763,790 40,315 336,625 161,835 225,020 763,790 13,790 18,885 35,005 59,880 73,435 147,320 113,860 301,620 96,460 60,105 61,960 29,320 53,775
A male received 70% to 79.9% of couple's total income 1,061,165 63,755 472,605 206,920 317,885 1,061,165 16,660 27,470 69,585 89,415 95,675 168,960 143,340 450,055 140,175 102,950 110,730 43,850 52,340
A male received 60% to 69.9% of couple's total income 1,382,285 86,745 655,630 261,875 378,035 1,382,285 16,040 37,475 122,740 88,670 93,585 198,625 193,660 631,485 212,015 154,515 155,180 59,380 50,390
A male received 50% to 59.9% of couple's total income 1,540,040 88,050 730,780 292,375 428,830 1,540,040 24,415 82,300 127,055 84,055 89,040 208,900 221,725 702,550 230,475 160,650 188,515 73,045 49,860
A female is the higher total income recipientFootnote 10 2,410,930 133,005 1,225,315 543,035 509,580 2,410,925 79,975 105,695 170,495 192,190 195,550 377,235 337,460 952,325 322,625 228,360 238,585 79,825 82,930
A female received 90% or more of couple's total income 194,160 11,295 104,990 59,530 18,355 194,160 23,885 24,520 24,905 24,215 18,765 24,340 17,945 35,585 13,815 6,295 5,875 2,575 7,030
A female received 80% to 89.9% of couple's total income 203,830 10,240 95,875 56,455 41,260 203,825 15,750 11,875 15,875 19,280 21,340 37,035 26,805 55,865 23,005 10,765 8,925 4,030 9,135
A female received 70% to 79.9% of couple's total income 333,540 17,155 156,330 80,155 79,900 333,540 12,210 15,255 24,270 32,730 37,875 60,850 40,825 109,515 38,695 26,600 21,925 8,880 13,415
A female received 60% to 69.9% of couple's total income 588,105 32,400 294,080 129,000 132,635 588,110 12,045 20,550 37,795 49,975 49,125 94,145 81,460 243,005 82,990 64,145 58,065 19,020 18,795
A female received 50% to 59.9% of couple's total income 1,091,290 61,920 574,050 217,900 237,425 1,091,290 16,080 33,490 67,645 65,995 68,445 160,860 170,415 508,350 164,120 120,545 143,800 45,330 34,555
Number of couples with market incomeFootnote 11 7,969,260 450,605 3,881,235 1,761,350 1,876,070 7,969,260 168,015 244,235 530,095 583,215 622,425 1,252,000 1,143,640 3,425,625 1,122,940 780,795 829,460 320,590 371,840
Average share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 75.0 72.8 73.4 74.9 78.9 75.0 87.0 85.2 84.9 82.7 80.2 76.4 72.9 70.1 70.9 69.3 67.8 68.8 75.4
Median share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 72.3 69.4 70.1 72.2 80.1 72.3 100.0 98.3 95.3 88.2 82.2 75.2 70.0 66.4 67.3 66.1 64.2 65.2 75.2
Number of couples with two market income recipientsFootnote 12 6,748,810 394,460 3,361,995 1,493,845 1,498,515 6,748,810 76,235 131,755 311,270 405,560 480,460 1,062,800 1,031,265 3,249,470 1,046,360 743,020 798,020 308,060 354,005
Average share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 70.5 68.9 69.3 70.4 73.6 70.5 71.4 72.6 74.3 75.1 74.3 72.2 70.0 68.4 68.8 67.7 66.5 67.5 74.1
Median share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 68.1 66.4 66.4 67.4 72.4 68.1 69.4 71.4 74.0 75.1 73.4 70.3 67.2 65.4 66.1 65.2 63.2 64.3 74.0
Number of couples with employment incomeFootnote 13 7,033,655 447,235 3,835,830 1,674,795 1,075,790 7,033,655 122,385 189,685 327,075 442,335 512,410 1,094,410 1,049,275 3,296,085 1,060,990 751,160 809,255 313,500 361,175
Average share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 78.1 73.8 74.6 79.1 91.0 78.1 91.1 87.9 87.7 86.4 84.2 80.8 77.3 73.4 74.9 72.8 70.6 71.6 78.2
Median share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 77.2 70.5 71.3 79.3 100.1 77.2 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.0 94.1 83.4 76.0 69.4 71.4 68.5 66.2 67.2 78.4
Number of couples with two employment income recipientsFootnote 14 5,080,635 379,090 3,137,365 1,182,745 381,430 5,080,635 36,885 79,455 143,680 217,960 291,865 730,295 791,895 2,788,605 864,420 643,125 713,785 274,315 292,960
Average share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 69.7 69.1 68.9 70.4 74.6 69.7 70.4 71.2 71.9 72.4 72.3 71.3 69.9 68.6 69.2 68.2 66.7 67.5 73.2
Median share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 67.1 66.5 66.3 68.0 74.1 67.1 69.2 70.1 70.4 71.2 71.1 69.2 67.2 65.5 66.3 65.4 63.2 64.2 72.3
Number of couples with government transfersFootnote 15 6,784,315 399,870 3,262,800 1,132,770 1,988,870 6,784,315 255,350 333,520 585,640 574,730 576,995 1,083,335 932,370 2,442,370 865,605 567,115 568,995 208,545 232,110
Average share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 83.8 84.2 92.5 89.4 66.4 83.8 86.9 76.3 73.0 76.7 78.5 81.3 85.1 90.7 88.3 90.5 92.8 93.6 92.4
Median share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 96.2 93.1 100.1 100.1 60.1 96.2 96.4 76.1 68.1 76.2 82.1 91.4 100.0 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1
Number of couples with two government transfers recipientsFootnote 16 3,838,400 247,325 1,386,110 477,380 1,727,585 3,838,400 140,905 265,655 495,775 456,955 431,300 689,625 473,530 884,660 361,250 204,790 178,130 63,550 76,945
Average share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 71.4 74.5 82.3 74.7 61.3 71.4 76.3 70.3 68.1 70.7 71.3 70.6 70.6 74.3 71.9 73.6 77.2 79.0 77.1
Median share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 67.4 74.5 87.4 74.5 58.0 67.4 77.1 67.4 64.4 68.0 68.0 66.2 66.2 72.1 67.5 70.4 79.4 87.2 81.2

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

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Footnote 2

In the context of income distribution between couples, share refers to the proportion of a couple's combined income received by one of the spouses, and it is used to identify the higher income recipient among a couple.

When a couple jointly has a positive amount of income, but one of the spouses has a negative or zero income, the spouse with a negative or zero income is not considered to be an income recipient. His/her share of the couple's income is set to 0%, while the share of the other spouse is set to 100%.

When both spouses have the same amount of income, the share of the couple's income is 50% for both individuals and the higher income recipient spouse is randomly selected.

Couples with a negative or zero combined income are considered to have no income, and they are excluded from the calculations of any share statistics.

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Footnote 3

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 4

Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 5

All values of income (negative, zero and positive amounts) are included in the calculation of this median statistic.

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Footnote 6

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 7

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 8

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Footnote 9

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 10

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 11

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 12

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Footnote 13

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 14

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Footnote 15

Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

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Footnote 16

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016106.

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