Data tables, 2016 Census

Distribution of Income Between Married Spouses or Common-law Partners (47), Characteristics of Couples (19) and Opposite-/Same-sex Status of Couple (5) for Married Spouses or Common-law Partners in Private Households of Canada, 2016 Census - 100% Data

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This table details distribution of income between married spouses or common-law partners , characteristics of couples and opposite-/same-sex status of couple for married spouses or common-law partners in private households in Canada
Data quality
Distribution of income between married spouses or common-law partners (47) Opposite-/same-sex status of couple (5)
Total - Opposite-/same-sex status of couple Opposite-sex couples Same-sex couples Male Female
Total - Couples by distribution of income between married spouses or common-law partnersFootnote 1 8,227,925 8,155,040 72,880 37,800 35,080
Number of couples with total incomeFootnote 2 8,217,015 8,144,210 72,805 37,755 35,050
Median total income of couplesFootnote 3 87,688 87,605 96,870 100,707 92,857
Median total income of the higher income spouse 59,121 59,078 63,958 67,570 60,441
Median total income of the lower income spouseFootnote 4 25,015 24,969 31,073 31,192 30,942
Average share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 70.0 70.1 68.6 69.6 67.5
Median share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 67.1 67.1 65.1 66.2 63.2
A male is the higher total income recipientFootnote 5 5,705,065 5,667,305 37,760 37,760 not applicable ...
A female is the higher total income recipientFootnote 6 2,511,955 2,476,905 35,050 not applicable ... 35,050
Number of couples with two total income recipientsFootnote 7 7,889,570 7,819,905 69,670 35,885 33,780
Average share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 68.8 68.8 67.2 68.0 66.3
Median share received by the higher total income recipient (%) 66.1 66.2 64.2 65.2 63.1
One spouse/partner received 90% or more of couple's total income 925,525 919,085 6,440 3,675 2,765
One spouse/partner received 80% to 89.9% of couple's total income 967,620 960,110 7,510 4,205 3,305
One spouse/partner received 70% to 79.9% of couple's total income 1,394,705 1,383,310 11,395 6,095 5,295
One spouse/partner received 60% to 69.9% of couple's total income 1,970,390 1,952,065 18,325 9,380 8,945
One spouse/partner received 50% to 59.9% of couple's total income 2,631,335 2,605,340 25,995 12,525 13,465
A male is the higher total income recipientFootnote 8 5,478,640 5,442,760 35,880 35,880 not applicable ...
A male received 90% or more of couple's total income 731,360 727,690 3,670 3,675 not applicable ...
A male received 80% to 89.9% of couple's total income 763,790 759,585 4,205 4,205 not applicable ...
A male received 70% to 79.9% of couple's total income 1,061,165 1,055,070 6,095 6,095 not applicable ...
A male received 60% to 69.9% of couple's total income 1,382,285 1,372,900 9,380 9,380 not applicable ...
A male received 50% to 59.9% of couple's total income 1,540,040 1,527,515 12,525 12,525 not applicable ...
A female is the higher total income recipientFootnote 9 2,410,925 2,377,145 33,785 not applicable ... 33,780
A female received 90% or more of couple's total income 194,165 191,395 2,765 not applicable ... 2,765
A female received 80% to 89.9% of couple's total income 203,830 200,525 3,305 not applicable ... 3,305
A female received 70% to 79.9% of couple's total income 333,540 328,240 5,300 not applicable ... 5,300
A female received 60% to 69.9% of couple's total income 588,105 579,165 8,940 not applicable ... 8,945
A female received 50% to 59.9% of couple's total income 1,091,290 1,077,825 13,465 not applicable ... 13,465
Number of couples with market incomeFootnote 10 7,969,260 7,897,480 71,780 37,235 34,545
Average share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 75.0 75.0 71.2 72.0 70.3
Median share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 72.3 72.4 67.2 68.2 66.2
Number of couples with two market income recipientsFootnote 11 6,748,805 6,684,160 64,645 33,260 31,380
Average share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 70.5 70.5 68.0 68.6 67.3
Median share received by the higher market income recipient (%) 68.1 68.1 65.1 65.4 64.2
Number of couples with employment incomeFootnote 12 7,033,650 6,965,855 67,795 35,080 32,720
Average share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 78.1 78.2 74.4 75.2 73.5
Median share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 77.2 77.2 70.3 71.5 69.1
Number of couples with two employment income recipientsFootnote 13 5,080,635 5,026,390 54,245 27,660 26,585
Average share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 69.7 69.7 68.0 68.6 67.4
Median share received by the higher employment income recipient (%) 67.1 67.2 64.5 65.3 64.1
Number of couples with government transfersFootnote 14 6,784,315 6,735,775 48,535 23,375 25,160
Average share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 83.8 83.8 86.1 86.7 85.5
Median share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 96.2 96.2 100.0 100.0 98.5
Number of couples with two government transfers recipientsFootnote 15 3,838,400 3,814,490 23,910 10,800 13,115
Average share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 71.4 71.4 71.7 71.2 72.2
Median share received by the higher government transfers recipient (%) 67.4 67.4 68.5 67.4 70.0

Symbol(s)

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not available for a specific reference period

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not applicable

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suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

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Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

In the context of income distribution between couples, share refers to the proportion of a couple's combined income received by one of the spouses, and it is used to identify the higher income recipient among a couple.

When a couple jointly has a positive amount of income, but one of the spouses has a negative or zero income, the spouse with a negative or zero income is not considered to be an income recipient. His/her share of the couple's income is set to 0%, while the share of the other spouse is set to 100%.

When both spouses have the same amount of income, the share of the couple's income is 50% for both individuals and the higher income recipient spouse is randomly selected.

Couples with a negative or zero combined income are considered to have no income, and they are excluded from the calculations of any share statistics.

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Footnote 2

Total income - The sum of certain incomes (in cash and, in some circumstances, in kind) of the statistical unit during a specified reference period. The components used to calculate total income vary between:

- statistical units of social statistical programs such as persons, private households, census families and economic families;
- statistical units of business statistical programs such as enterprises, companies, establishments and locations;
- statistical units of farm statistical programs such as farm operator and farm family.

In the context of persons, total income refers to receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of census families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of economic families, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all of its family members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

In the context of households, total income refers to receipts from certain sources of all household members, before income taxes and deductions, during a specified reference period.

The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. Receipts that are included as income are:

- employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities);
- income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, guaranteed investment certificates (GICs) and mutual funds;
- income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and registered retirement income funds (RRIFs);
- other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships;
- income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, Employment Insurance benefits, Old Age Security benefits, Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan benefits and disability income.

Receipts excluded from this income definition are:

- one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump-sum insurance settlements and tax-free savings account (TFSA) or registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) withdrawals;
- capital gains because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are more relevant to the concept of wealth than the concept of income;
- employers' contributions to registered pension plans, Canada Pension Plan, Québec Pension Plan and Employment Insurance;
- voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter and goods produced for own consumption.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 3

Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 4

All values of income (negative, zero and positive amounts) are included in the calculation of this median statistic.

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Footnote 5

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 6

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 7

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Footnote 8

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 9

This count can include both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

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Footnote 10

Market income - The sum of employment income (wages, salaries and commissions, net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, private retirement income (retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from registered retirement savings plans [RRSPs] and registered retirement income funds [RRIFs]) and other money income from market sources during the reference period. It is equivalent to total income minus government transfers. It is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 11

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Footnote 12

Employment income - All income received as wages, salaries and commissions from paid employment and net self-employment income from farm or non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice during the reference period.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 13

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Footnote 14

Government transfers - All cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during the reference period. It includes:

- Old Age Security pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance or Allowance for the Survivor;
- retirement, disability and survivor benefits from Canada Pension Plan and Québec Pension Plan;
- benefits from Employment Insurance and Québec parental insurance plan;
- child benefits from federal and provincial programs;
- social assistance benefits;
- workers' compensation benefits;
- Working income tax benefit;
- Goods and services tax credit and harmonized sales tax credit;
- other income from government sources.

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Only couples with a positive combined income are included.

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Footnote 15

Refers to couples where both spouses have a positive amount of income.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016107.

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