Data tables, 2016 Census

Low-income Indicators (4), Individual Low-income Status (6), Economic Family Characteristics of Persons (25) and Year (2) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data and 2016 Census - 100% Data

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This table details low-income indicators , individual low-income status , economic family characteristics of persons and year for the population in private households in Canada
Data quality
Economic family characteristics of persons (25) Individual low-income status (6)
Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 3 Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 4 Low-income status - applicable In low income Not in low income Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 5
Total - Persons by selected economic family characteristicsFootnote 6 34,460,060 491,765 33,968,295 4,809,940 29,158,355 14.2
Persons in economic familiesFootnote 7 29,146,520 445,215 28,701,305 3,308,175 25,393,140 11.5
In couple economic families 24,896,115 326,090 24,570,025 2,124,580 22,445,440 8.6
In a couple economic family without children or other relatives 7,412,430 51,280 7,361,155 613,580 6,747,575 8.3
In a couple economic family with children 17,002,395 262,955 16,739,435 1,480,495 15,258,940 8.8
With children aged 0 to 17 years 12,821,175 229,890 12,591,285 1,285,715 11,305,575 10.2
Without children aged 0 to 5 years 6,806,760 89,805 6,716,950 562,180 6,154,775 8.4
With children aged 0 to 5 years 6,014,420 140,085 5,874,330 723,530 5,150,805 12.3
In a couple economic family with other relatives only 481,290 11,850 469,440 30,510 438,930 6.5
In lone-parent economic families 3,945,235 111,430 3,833,800 1,116,875 2,716,925 29.1
In a male lone-parent economic family 819,095 28,255 790,835 158,480 632,355 20.0
In a male lone-parent economic family without other relatives 713,110 15,645 697,465 143,725 553,740 20.6
With children aged 0 to 17 years 389,725 9,700 380,025 102,355 277,675 26.9
Without children aged 0 to 5 years 309,335 6,800 302,535 75,415 227,120 24.9
With children aged 0 to 5 years 80,385 2,895 77,490 26,935 50,555 34.8
In a female lone-parent economic family 3,126,140 83,180 3,042,960 958,395 2,084,570 31.5
In a female lone-parent economic family without other relatives 2,764,280 55,145 2,709,135 896,950 1,812,190 33.1
With children aged 0 to 17 years 1,674,325 40,555 1,633,770 714,495 919,270 43.7
Without children aged 0 to 5 years 1,139,605 21,820 1,117,780 402,740 715,045 36.0
With children aged 0 to 5 years 534,720 18,735 515,985 311,760 204,225 60.4
In other economic families 305,170 7,685 297,485 66,715 230,765 22.4
Persons not in economic families 5,313,545 46,555 5,266,990 1,501,765 3,765,220 28.5
Persons not in economic families aged 15 to 29 yearsFootnote 8 1,037,605 7,480 1,030,125 311,620 718,505 30.3
Persons not in economic families aged 30 to 64 years 2,753,600 28,285 2,725,320 707,500 2,017,825 26.0
Persons not in economic families aged 65 years and over 1,522,340 10,790 1,511,545 482,650 1,028,900 31.9

Symbol(s)

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not available for a specific reference period

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not applicable

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Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

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Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

F

Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

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Footnote 2

The reference period for income data from a given census is the calendar year prior to the specified census year.

Specifically, income data from the 2006 and 2016 censuses relate to the calendar year prior to the census year, i.e., 2005 and 2015 respectively. For additional information, refer to the Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016 and the Income Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 3

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 4

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

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Footnote 5

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

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Footnote 6

For more information, refer to the Census Dictionary: Economic family; Economic family structure.

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Footnote 7

The way that economic families are classified by economic family structure depends on who is selected as the economic family reference person. For the 2016 Census, the criteria for determining who is the economic family reference person changed slightly. Data appearing in this table for 2011, 2006 or 2001, as the case may be, have been updated to reflect the 2016 procedures in order to provide comparable data for all years shown. For more information, refer to the Families Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2016.

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Footnote 8

For years prior to 2016, a small number of persons not in economic families may be aged less than 15 years. They are included with persons not in economic families aged 15 to 29 years in this table.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016125.

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