Data tables, 2016 Census

Low-income Indicators (4), Individual Low-income Status (6), Age (8) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 100% Data

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This table details low-income indicators , individual low-income status , age and sex for the population in private households in Canada
Data quality
Age (8) Individual low-income status (6)
Total - Individual low-income statusFootnote 2 Low-income status - not applicableFootnote 3 Low-income status - applicable In low income Not in low income Prevalence of low income (%)Footnote 4
Total - Age 34,460,065 491,765 33,968,295 4,809,940 29,158,355 14.2
0 to 17 years 6,998,335 161,960 6,836,380 1,163,825 5,672,550 17.0
0 to 5 years 2,284,365 55,595 2,228,770 396,090 1,832,675 17.8
6 to 17 years 4,713,970 106,365 4,607,610 767,735 3,839,870 16.7
18 to 24 years 3,050,490 52,810 2,997,680 506,090 2,491,590 16.9
25 to 54 years 14,076,250 184,625 13,891,630 1,712,820 12,178,810 12.3
55 to 64 years 4,855,090 49,305 4,805,785 636,380 4,169,405 13.2
65 years and over 5,479,895 43,065 5,436,830 790,820 4,646,005 14.5


Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period


Symbol ...

not applicable


Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act


Symbol F

too unreliable to be published



Footnote 1

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income, multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

For the 2016 Census, the reference period is the calendar year 2015 for all income variables.

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Footnote 3

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

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Footnote 4

Prevalence of low income - The proportion or percentage of units whose income falls below a specified low-income line.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016127.

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