NHS Focus on Geography Series – Canada


Aboriginal Peoples

Demographic characteristics of Aboriginal people

In 2011, 4.3% (1,400,685) of the population of Canada had an Aboriginal identity.Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 1 Of those, 60.8% (851,560) reported a First Nations identityAboriginal Peoples Footnote 2 only, 32.3% (451,790) reported a Métis identity only and 4.2% (59,440) reported an Inuit identity only. An additional 26,475, or 1.9%, reported other Aboriginal identities and 11,415, or 0.8%, reported more than one Aboriginal identity.

Table 1 – Population by Aboriginal identity, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population by Aboriginal identity. The column headings are: population; number; percentage of total population and percentage of Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population; Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian); First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian); Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; multiple Aboriginal identities; Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 1 – Population by Aboriginal identity, Canada
Population Number % of total population % of Aboriginal identity population
Total population in private households 32,852,325 100.0 ...
   Aboriginal identity population 1,400,685 4.3 100.0
      First Nations single identity 851,560 2.6 60.8
         First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian) 637,660 1.9 45.5
         First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian) 213,900 0.7 15.3
      Métis single identity 451,790 1.4 32.3
      Inuit single identity 59,440 0.2 4.2
      Multiple Aboriginal identities 11,415 0.0 0.8
      Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere 26,475 0.1 1.9
   Non-Aboriginal identity population 31,451,635 95.7 ...

In Canada, the Aboriginal population is younger than the non-Aboriginal population. In 2011, the median age of the Aboriginal population was 27.7 years compared to 40.6 for the non-Aboriginal population. The median age is the age where exactly one-half of the population is older and the other half is younger.

The median age and age distribution of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are shown in table 2.

Table 2 – Age distribution and median age by Aboriginal identity, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population by Aboriginal identity and distribution by various age groups, as well as the median age. The column headings are: population; percentage distribution by age groups and median age (years). Percentage distribution by age groups is further divided into: total - age groups; 0 to 14 years; 15 to 24 years; 25 to 64 years and 65 years and over. The rows are: total population; Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian); First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian); Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; multiple Aboriginal identities; Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 2 – Age distribution and median age by Aboriginal identity, Canada
Population Total – Age groups 0 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Median age
Percentage (%) distribution by age groups years
Total population in private households 100.0 17.0 13.2 56.0 13.9 40.1
   Aboriginal identity population 100.0 28.0 18.2 47.9 5.9 27.7
      First Nations single identity 100.0 30.4 18.4 45.7 5.5 25.9
         First Nations single identity (Registered or Treaty Indian) 100.0 30.7 18.6 45.4 5.3 25.5
         First Nations single identity (not a Registered or Treaty Indian) 100.0 29.4 17.9 46.5 6.2 27.0
      Métis single identity 100.0 23.1 17.7 52.6 6.6 31.4
      Inuit single identity 100.0 33.9 20.1 41.9 4.1 22.8
      Multiple Aboriginal identities 100.0 32.7 17.5 44.2 5.7 24.9
      Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere 100.0 18.9 13.8 54.8 12.5 39.4
   Non-Aboriginal identity population 100.0 16.5 12.9 56.3 14.2 40.6

Living arrangements of Aboriginal children

In Canada, 49.6% of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under lived in a familyAboriginal Peoples Footnote 3 with both their parents (biological or adoptive) and 34.4% lived in a lone-parent family.Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 4 Another 8.5% were stepchildren,Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 5 2.7% were grandchildren living in a skip-generation family,Aboriginal Peoples Footnote 6 3.6% were foster childrenAboriginal Peoples Footnote 7 and 1.2% were children living with other relatives.

Living arrangements of First Nations, Métis and Inuit children aged 14 and under are illustrated in table 3.

Table 3 – Percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: living arrangements; percentage distribution of the population for: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population aged 14 and under; children of both parents; stepchildren; children of lone parent; of male lone parent; of female lone parent; grandchildren in skip-generation family; foster children; children living with other relatives.

Table 3 – Percentage distribution of the population aged 14 and under by living arrangement for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Canada
Living arrangements Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity Non-Aboriginal identity population
Percentage (%) distribution of the population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Includes children in a two-parent family where there may also be step siblings or half-siblings present. Also includes children in a two-parent family for whom it cannot be determined if they are stepchildren.

Return to footnote 3-1 referrer

Footnote 2

Non-relatives may be present.

Return to footnote 3-2 referrer

Footnote 3

This category excludes foster children.

Return to footnote 3-3 referrer

Total population aged 14 and under 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   Children of both parentsTable 3 Footnote 1 49.6 45.0 58.0 61.6 76.0
   Stepchildren 8.5 8.7 8.6 6.4 5.8
   Children of lone parent 34.4 37.1 29.8 25.8 17.4
      Of male lone parent 6.0 6.7 4.3 6.1 2.9
      Of female lone parent 28.4 30.4 25.5 19.7 14.4
   Grandchildren in skip-generation family 2.7 3.3 1.4 2.3 0.4
   Foster children 3.6 4.5 1.7 2.8 0.3
   Children living with other relativesTable 3 Footnote 2,Table 3 Footnote 3 1.2 1.4 0.5 1.1 0.2

Language and Aboriginal peoples

In Canada, 240,815 Aboriginal people, or 17.2% of the population who had an Aboriginal identity, responded that they were able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language. In 2011, the Aboriginal languages most frequently reported by Aboriginal people were: Cree languages (95,170), Inuktitut (36,235) and Ojibway (24,770).

In 2011, 14.5% of the Aboriginal identity population reported an Aboriginal language as mother tongue, defined as the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood.

As well, 14.0% of Aboriginal people reported speaking an Aboriginal language at home: 8.5% spoke it most often while another 5.5% spoke it on a regular basis.

Linguistic characteristics of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit are shown in tables 4 to 6.

Table 4 – Number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators, Canada

Table summary

This table presents number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators. The column headings are: selected Aboriginal language indicators; total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity. The last four columns are divided into number and percentage of population. The rows are: ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language; Aboriginal language as mother tongue; Aboriginal language spoken at least regularly at home; Aboriginal language spoken most often at home; Aboriginal language spoken regularly at home.

Table 4 – Number and proportion of Aboriginal identity population, First Nations people, Métis and Inuit for selected Aboriginal language indicators, Canada
Selected Aboriginal language indicators Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity
numberTable 4 Footnote 1 % of population number % of population number % of population number % of population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

The estimates for the three Aboriginal groups do not add to the total Aboriginal identity population because only selected Aboriginal identity categories are shown.

Return to footnote 4-1 referrer

Footnote 2

This category excludes individuals who reported speaking one Aboriginal language most often at home and speaking another Aboriginal language regularly at home. These individuals are included only in the category 'Aboriginal language spoken most often at home.'

Return to footnote 4-2 referrer

Ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language 240,815 17.2 191,005 22.4 11,255 2.5 37,880 63.7
Aboriginal language as mother tongue 202,495 14.5 158,880 18.7 8,270 1.8 34,900 58.7
Aboriginal language spoken at least regularly at home 196,115 14.0 153,100 18.0 7,225 1.6 35,355 59.5
   Aboriginal language spoken most often at home 118,515 8.5 87,930 10.3 3,105 0.7 27,275 45.9
   Aboriginal language spoken regularly at homeTable 4 Footnote 2 77,600 5.5 65,175 7.7 4,120 0.9 8,075 13.6

In Canada, 88.7% of the Aboriginal identity population reported that they were able to conduct a conversation only in English or only in French. Additionally, 10.5% of Aboriginal people reported that they were able to conduct a conversation in both of Canada's official languages. The other 0.8%, or 10,655, reported that they were not able to conduct a conversation in either of these two languages.

Table 5 – Percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: knowledge of official languages; percentage distribution of the population for: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population. The rows are: total population; English only; French only; English and French; neither English nor French.

Table 5 – Percentage distribution of the population by knowledge of official languages for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Canada
Knowledge of official languages Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity Métis single identity Inuit single identity Non-Aboriginal identity population
Percentage (%) distribution of the population
Total population in private households 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   English only 84.0 88.0 77.3 83.4 67.5
   French only 4.7 4.4 5.3 1.9 12.9
   English and French 10.5 7.0 17.3 6.2 17.9
   Neither English nor French 0.8 0.6 0.1 8.5 1.7

In Canada, among the 240,815 Aboriginal people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language, 78.3% reported that same language as their mother tongue. The other 21.7% reported a different language, such as English or French, as mother tongue, which suggests these individuals have acquired an Aboriginal language as a second language.

On the other hand, among the 202,495 Aboriginal people who reported an Aboriginal language as mother tongue, 6.9% could no longer conduct a conversation in this language, despite the fact that they still understand it.

Table 6 – Population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and the population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories. The column headings are: selected Aboriginal identity categories; persons reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue; persons reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language. The last two columns are divided into number and percentage of population. The rows are: total Aboriginal identity population; First Nations single identity; Métis single identity; Inuit single identity; non-Aboriginal identity population.

Table 6 – Population who reported an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue and population who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language, for selected Aboriginal identity categories, Canada
Selected Aboriginal identity categories Persons reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language that is not their mother tongue Persons reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue but who could not conduct a conversation in that language
numberTable 6 Footnote 1 % of population numberTable 6 Footnote 1 % of population
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

The estimates for the three Aboriginal groups do not add to the total Aboriginal identity population because only selected Aboriginal identity categories are shown.

Return to footnote 6-1 referrer

Total Aboriginal identity population 52,270 21.7 13,955 6.9
   First Nations single identity 44,135 23.1 12,005 7.6
   Métis single identity 3,970 35.3 990 12.0
   Inuit single identity 3,850 10.2 875 2.5
Non-Aboriginal identity population 3,460 80.5 415 33.1

Note(s):

Footnote 1

Aboriginal identity: The term 'Aboriginal identity' refers to whether the person reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or being a Registered or Treaty Indian, (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or being a member of a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Respondents self-identified as 'First Nations (North American Indian)' on the NHS questionnaire; however, the term 'First Nations people' is used throughout this document.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Family: The term 'family' in this document refers to the census definition of 'census family,' but for simplicity, the term 'family' is used throughout this report. A census family is composed of a married or common-law couple, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling. Couples can be of the opposite sex or of the same sex.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Lone parents: Mothers or fathers, with no married spouse or common-law partner present, living in a dwelling with one or more children.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Stepchild: A stepchild is a child in a couple family who is the biological or adopted child of only one married spouse or common-law partner in the couple, and whose birth or adoption preceded the current relationship.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Skip-generation family: A census family that consists of grandparents and grandchildren without the presence of parents in the home.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

Foster children: The population in private households who have been reported as foster children on the NHS questionnaire. Foster children are considered as 'other relatives' outside of a census family.

Aboriginal Peoples Return to footnote 7 referrer

Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity

Immigrant population

According to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), 6,775,765 (20.6%) of the population of Canada were foreign-born (immigrants), 25,720,170 (78.3%) were Canadian-born (non-immigrants) and 356,385 (1.1%) were non-permanent residents.Ethnocultural Footnote 1

Figure 1 Percentage of Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non permanent residents in Canada

Figure description

This vertical bar graph shows the percentage of Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non-permanent residents. The y-axis is the percentage of population and the x-axis, from left to right, shows Canadian born (non-immigrants), foreign born (immigrants) and non-permanent residents.

Of the immigrants living in Canada in 2011, 1,162,915 came between 2006 and 2011. These recent immigrants made up 17.2% of the immigrant population of Canada.

The three most common countries of birth of immigrants living in Canada were: India (accounting for 8.1% of the immigrant population), China (8.1%), and United Kingdom (7.9%).

Table – Immigrants by country of birth, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the most common countries of birth of immigrants. The column headings are: immigrants by country of birth along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: total immigrants and the most common countries of birth of immigrants.

Table – Immigrants by country of birth, Canada
Immigrants by country of birth Canada
Count %
Total immigrants 6,775,765 100.0
   India 547,890 8.1
   China 545,535 8.1
   United Kingdom 537,040 7.9

In 2011, among Canada's immigrant population, 57.3% spoke English and/or French most often at home. Meanwhile, the three most frequently reported non-official languages spoken most often at home by immigrants in Canada were Cantonese, Panjabi (Punjabi) and Chinese, n.o.s..Ethnocultural Footnote 2

Table – Immigrants by non-official languages spoken most often at home, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the most common non-official language spoken most often at home for immigrants. The column headings are: immigrants by non-official language spoken most often at home with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common non-official language spoken most often at home.

Table – Immigrants by non-official languages spoken most often at home, Canada
Immigrants by non-official language spoken most often at homeEthnocultural Footnote 2 Canada
Count %
Cantonese 277,850 4.1
Panjabi (Punjabi) 277,155 4.1
Chinese, n.o.s. 263,810 3.9

The median age of immigrants in Canada was 47.4 years in 2011.

Visible minority population and ethnic origins

The 2011 NHS estimated that 6,264,750 individuals in Canada belonged to a visible minority group, accounting for 19.1% of its total population.Ethnocultural Footnote 1

The three largest visible minority groups living in Canada were South Asian, Chinese and Black.

The median age of the visible minority population in Canada was 33.4 years in 2011.

Table – Population showing visible minority groups, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the population by visible minority groups. The column headings are: population showing visible minority groups along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: total population; total visible minority population; South Asian; Chinese; Black; Filipino; Latin American; Arab; Southeast Asian; West Asian; Korean; Japanese; visible minority, n.i.e., multiple visible minorities and not a visible minority.

Table – Population showing visible minority groups, Canada
Population showing visible minority groups Canada
Count %
Total population in private households 32,852,320 100.0
   Total visible minority population 6,264,750 19.1
      South Asian 1,567,400 4.8
      Chinese 1,324,750 4.0
      Black 945,665 2.9
      Filipino 619,310 1.9
      Latin American 381,280 1.2
      Arab 380,620 1.2
      Southeast Asian 312,080 0.9
      West Asian 206,840 0.6
      Korean 161,125 0.5
      Japanese 87,265 0.3
      Visible minority, n.i.e. 106,475 0.3
      Multiple visible minorities 171,935 0.5
   Not a visible minority 26,587,575 80.9

The three most frequently reported ethnic origins in Canada, for people reporting either one or multiple ethnic origins, were Canadian, English and French.

Table – Most frequently reported ethnic origins, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the most common ethnic origins. The column headings are: ethnic origin along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common ethnic origins.

Table – Most frequently reported ethnic origins, Canada
Most frequently reported ethnic origins Canada
Count %
Canadian 10,563,800 32.1
English 6,509,500 19.8
French 5,065,685 15.4

Religion

According to the 2011 NHS, 76.1% of the population of Canada reported a religious affiliation, while 23.9% said they had no religious affiliation.Ethnocultural Footnote 1

The most frequently reported religious affiliation in Canada was Roman Catholic, reported by 12,728,880 (38.7%) of the population. Other frequently reported religions included: United Church (6.1%) and Anglican (5.0%).

Table – Most frequently reported religions, Canada

Table summary

This table shows the most common religions. The column headings are: religion along with the selected geography showing both numbers and percentages. The rows are: the most common religions.

Table – Most frequently reported religions, Canada
Most frequently reported religions Canada
Count %
Total population in private households 32,852,320 100.0
   Total reporting a religious affiliation 25,001,715 76.1
      Roman Catholic 12,728,880 38.7
      United Church 2,007,610 6.1
      Anglican 1,631,850 5.0
   Total not reporting a religious affiliation 7,850,610 23.9

Note(s):

Footnote 1

For details on the concepts, definitions, universes, variables and geographic terms used in the 2011 National Household Survey, please consult the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For detailed explanations on concepts and for information on data quality, please refer to the reference guides found on the NHS website.

Ethnocultural Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

These counts include both single non-official language responses and multiple language responses. A multiple language response is a combination of non-official language response with a response of English and/or French.

Ethnocultural Return to footnote 2 referrer

Education

Educational attainment Education Footnote 1

In 2011, 59.6% of the 22,935,460 Canadian adults aged 25 and over had completed some form of postsecondary education. Of the population aged 25 and over, 28.1% had a university certificate or degree. An additional 19.6% had a college diploma and 12.0% had a trades certificate.

The share of the adult population that had completed a high school diploma as their highest level of educational attainment was 23.1%, and 17.3% had completed neither high school nor any postsecondary certificates, diplomas or degrees.

Table 1 – Population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainmentEducation Footnote 1, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainment. The column headings are: highest level of educational attainment; Canada, which is divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total population aged 25 years and over; no certificate, diploma or degree; high school diploma; a subtotal for postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree: trades certificate which is a subtotal of the rows for trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship) and registered apprenticeship certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; university degree which is a subtotal of the rows for bachelor's degree; university certificate above bachelor; degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry; master's degree; earned doctorate.

Table 1 – Population aged 25 and over by highest level of educational attainment
Highest level of educational attainment Canada
Number %
Total – Population aged 25 years and over 22,935,460 100.0
No certificate, diploma or degree 3,956,620 17.3
High school diplomaEducation Footnote 2 5,300,080 23.1
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 13,678,765 59.6
Trades certificateEducation Footnote 3 2,744,380 12.0
Trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship) 1,596,595 7.0
Registered Apprenticeship certificateEducation Footnote 4 1,147,790 5.0
College diplomaEducation Footnote 5 4,487,520 19.6
University certificate below bachelorEducation Footnote 6 1,100,325 4.8
University degreeEducation Footnote 7 5,346,530 23.3
Bachelor's degree 3,347,425 14.6
University certificate above bachelorEducation Footnote 8 571,525 2.5
Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry 151,715 0.7
Master's degree 1,068,190 4.7
Earned doctorate 207,680 0.9

Overall, successive generations of Canadians have been completing high school and attaining postsecondary qualifications in increasing proportions. In 2011, 41.7% of Canadians aged 65 years and over had a postsecondary credential; this compares with 69.5% among adults between the ages of 25 and 44. As well, 35.7% of those aged 65 years and over had not completed any certificate, diploma or degree compared with 9.5% of individuals aged 25 to 44.

Canada – Proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups This product was revised on October 7, 2014.

Figure description

This vertical bar graph shows the proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups. The age groups are: 25 to 44, 45 to 64 and 65 and over. The y-axis is the percentage of the population and the x-axis is level of educational attainment including: No certificate, diploma or degree; High school diploma; Trades certificate; College diploma; University certificate below bachelor; Bachelor's degree; University above bachelor.

Major field of study

Table 2 – Most common fields of studyEducation Footnote 9 for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainmentEducation Footnote 1, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the five most common fields of study by level of educational attainment for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications. The column headings are: field of study; Canada, which is divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the five most common fields of study under the educational attainment levels of: trades certificate; college diploma; university.

Canada – Proportion of the population aged 25 years and over by level of educational attainment and age groups Table 2 Canada – Most common fields of study for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainment
Field of study Canada
Number %
Trades certificate  
Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 485,755 17.7
Construction trades 434,090 15.8
Business, management, marketing and related support services 329,330 12.0
Personal and culinary services 328,125 12.0
Precision production 289,740 10.6
College diploma  
Business, management, marketing and related support services 1,242,870 27.7
Health professions and related programs 787,660 17.6
Engineering technologies and engineering-related fields 413,205 9.2
Mechanic and repair technologies/technicians 212,830 4.7
Computer and information sciences and support services 212,800 4.7
UniversityEducation Footnote 10  
Business, management, marketing and related support services 1,215,210 18.8
Education 921,390 14.3
Health professions and related programs 702,280 10.9
Engineering 686,100 10.6
Social sciences 429,185 6.7

Location of studyEducation Footnote 11

In 2011, there were 13,678,765 Canadians aged 25 years and over with postsecondary credentials. Of these graduates, 72.5% had studied in the same province or territory in which they lived in 2011, 10.4% had studied in another province or territory and 17.1% had studied outside Canada.

In all provinces, individuals with trades or college certificates were more likely than those with university credentials to have earned their highest certificate, diploma or degree in the province in which they lived in 2011.

Table 3 – Population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by location of study and by level of educational attainment, Canada

Table summary

This table presents location of study compared with the province or territory of residence in 2011 for the population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by level of educational attainment. The column headings are: educational attainment; location of study divided into studied in same province or territory as place of residence in 2011, studied in a different province or territory than place of residence in 2011, studied outside Canada and each of these present both number and percentage. The rows are: total population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications; trades certificate; college diploma; university certificate below bachelor; bachelor's degree; university above bachelor.

Table 3 – Population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications by location of study and by level of educational attainment, Canada
Educational attainment Location of study
Studied in same province/territory as place of residence in 2011 Studied in a different province/territory than place of residence in 2011 Studied outside Canada
number % number % number %
Total population aged 25 years and over with postsecondary qualifications 9,911,530 72.5 1,422,360 10.4 2,344,870 17.1
Trades certificate 2,294,095 83.6 214,400 7.8 235,890 8.6
College diploma 3,605,795 80.4 433,995 9.7 447,725 10.0
University certificate below bachelor 719,850 65.4 103,410 9.4 277,065 25.2
Bachelor's degree 2,211,150 66.1 422,650 12.6 713,625 21.3
University above bachelor 1,080,635 54.1 247,900 12.4 670,565 33.5

Note(s):

Footnote 1

The terms 'Educational attainment,' 'level of educational attainment' and 'highest level of educational attainment' used in this document refer to the Highest certificate, diploma or degree completed by a person. The portion of the population that completed each type of education noted is the portion that completed it as their highest certificate, diploma or degree.

Education return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

'High school diploma' refers to 'secondary (high) school diploma or equivalent.'

Education return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

'Trades certificate' refers to 'apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma,' and is an aggregation which includes both 'Registered Apprenticeship certificate' as well as 'trades certificate or diploma (other than apprenticeship).'

Education return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

'Registered Apprenticeship certificate' includes those with a certificate of qualification/journeyperson's designation.

Education return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

'College diploma' refers to 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma.'

Education return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

'University certificate below bachelor' refers to 'university certificate or diploma below bachelor level.' Comparisons with other data sources suggest that this category was over-reported in the NHS. It is recommended that users interpret the results for this category with caution. For further information, please refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey.

Education return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

'University degree' refers to 'university certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above.'

Education return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

'University certificate above bachelor' refers to 'university certificate or diploma above bachelor level'.

Education return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

'Field of study' in this table is classified based on the 2-digit series from the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. It is the major field of study for the highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree completed by the person.

Education return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

'University' in this table refers to 'university certificate, diploma or degree,' and includes all university certificates, diplomas and degrees including university certificates below the bachelor level, bachelor's degrees and university certificates and degrees above the bachelor level.

Education return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree was completed. Here, location of study is compared with province or territory of residence to indicate whether the location of study is the same province or territory as the person's residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada.

Education return to footnote 11 referrer

Labour

Labour

In Canada, 16,595,035 people were employed and 1,395,050 were unemployed for a total labour force of 17,990,080 in May 2011. The employment rate was at 60.9% and the unemployment rate was at 7.8%.

Table 1 Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force status, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the labour force status for the population aged 15 years and over. The column headings are: labour force status; Canada. The rows are: total population aged 15 years and over with sub-totals of: in the labour force (number) and not in the labour force (number). In the labour force (number) there are two components: employed (number) and unemployed (number). Rates are also presented for: participation rate (%); employment rate (%) and unemployment rate (%).

Table 1 Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force status, Canada
Labour force status Canada
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

Labour: Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Total population aged 15 years and overLabour Table 1 Footnote 1 27,259,525
In the labour force 17,990,080
Employed 16,595,035
Unemployed 1,395,050
Not in the labour force 9,269,445
Participation rate 66.0
Employment rate 60.9
Unemployment rate 7.8

Within Canada, 13.1% of the employed labour force was aged 15 to 24 and 15.3% was aged 55 to 64.

Table 2 Employed labour force by age groups, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the employed labour force by selected age groups. The column headings are: age groups and Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; age groups; 15 to 24 years; 25 to 34 years; 35 to 54 years; 55 to 64 years; 65 years and over.

Table 2 Employed labour force by age groups, Canada
Age groups Canada
number %
Total 16,595,035 100.0
15 to 24 years 2,180,880 13.1
25 to 34 years 3,394,445 20.5
35 to 54 years 7,912,010 47.7
55 to 64 years 2,535,655 15.3
65 years and over 572,045 3.4

Within Canada, the top occupations were Retail salespersons, Retail and wholesale trade managers and Administrative assistants.

Table 3 Top occupations for the employed labour force, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the top occupations. The column headings are: occupation, Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the top occupations.

Table 3 Top occupations for the employed labour force, Canada
Occupation Canada
number %
Retail salespersons 656,395 4.0
Retail and wholesale trade managers 363,285 2.2
Administrative assistants 328,825 2.0
Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations 312,820 1.9
Cashiers 308,950 1.9
Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses 291,380 1.8
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers 271,200 1.6
Transport truck drivers 261,775 1.6
Administrative officers 246,875 1.5
General office support workers 218,830 1.3

Within Canada, the top industries were Elementary and secondary schools, Hospitals and Grocery stores.

Table 4 Top industries for the employed labour force, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the top industries. The column headings are: industry, Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: the top industries.

Table 4 Top industries for the employed labour force, Canada
Industry Canada
number %
Elementary and secondary schools 777,015 4.7
Hospitals 614,440 3.7
Grocery stores 405,685 2.4
Full-service restaurants 397,965 2.4
Local, municipal and regional public administration 372,630 2.2
Other federal services 371,190 2.2
Limited-service restaurants 366,245 2.2
Nursing and residential care facilities 341,915 2.1
Farms (except aquaculture) 318,295 1.9
Provincial and territorial public administration 317,545 1.9

The number of self-employed in Canada amounted to 1,874,695 or 11.3% of all total employed workers.

Table 5 Employed labour force by class of workers, Canada

Table summary

This table presents class of worker. The column headings are: class of worker; Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total employed labour force; with subtotals of employee (number and percent) and total – self-employed (number and percent). The total – self-employed there are two components: self-employed (incorporated or unincorporated) and unpaid family worker.

Table 5 Employed labour force by class of workers, Canada
Class of worker Canada
number %
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

Return to footnote 5-1 referrer

Total employed labour force 16,595,035 100.0
Employee 14,720,340 88.7
Total – Self-employedTable 5 Footnote 1 1,874,695 11.3
Self-employed (incorporated or unincorporated) 1,829,120 11.0
Unpaid family worker 45,575 0.3

In 2011, 12.0% of commuters within Canada used public transit to get to work. 74.0% of the population used a car, truck or van as a driver, while 5.6% used a car, truck or van as a passenger. The average commuting time to work in Canada was 25.4 minutes.

Within Canada, 81.5% of the employed labour force aged 15 years and over worked at their usual place, 6.9% worked at home and 11.3% had no fixed workplace address.

Table 6 Employed labour force by mode of transportation, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the employed labour force by mode of transportation. The column headings are: mode of transportation; Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total employed labour force with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address; car, truck or van as driver; car, truck or van as passenger; public transit; walked; bicycle; other.

Table 6 Employed labour force by mode of transportation, Canada
Mode of transportation Canada
number %
Total employed labour force with a usual place of work or no fixed workplace address 15,385,940 100.0
Car, truck or van as driver 11,393,140 74.0
Car, truck or van as passenger 867,050 5.6
Public transit 1,851,520 12.0
Walked 880,815 5.7
Bicycle 201,785 1.3
Other 191,625 1.2

Table 7 Average commuting duration for the employed labour force, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the average commuting duration. The column headings are: average commuting duration; Canada. The row includes the average commuting duration.

Table 7 Average commuting duration for the employed labour force, Canada
Commuting duration Canada
Average 25.4

Table 8 Employed Labour force by time leaving for work, Canada

Table summary

This table presents time leaving for work. The column headings are: time leaving for work; Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; 5 to 5:59 a.m.; 6 to 6:59 a.m.; 7 to 7:59 a.m.; 8 to 8:59 a.m.; 9 to 11:59 a.m.; 12 p.m. to 4:59 a.m.

Table 8 Employed Labour force by time leaving for work, Canada
Time leaving for work Canada
number %
Total 15,385,940 100.0
5 to 5:59 a.m. 980,550 6.4
6 to 6:59 a.m. 2,782,690 18.1
7 to 7:59 a.m. 4,472,745 29.1
8 to 8:59 a.m. 3,397,085 22.1
9 to 11:59 a.m. 1,593,230 10.4
12 p.m. to 4:59 a.m. 2,159,630 14.0

Table 9 Employed labour force by place of work status, Canada

Table summary

This table presents place of work. The column headings are: place of work; Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: total; usual place of work; worked at home; worked outside Canada; no fixed workplace address.

Table 9 Employed labour force by place of work status, Canada
Place of work Canada
number %
Total employed labour force 16,595,035 100.0
Usual place of work 13,517,690 81.5
Worked at home 1,142,640 6.9
Worked outside Canada 66,455 0.4
No fixed workplace address 1,868,245 11.3

In Canada, 76.4% (14,622,905) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported English only as the language used most often at work, 20.0% (3,831,535) reported French only and 1.7% (317,135) said they used both official languages (English and French) equally. In addition, 0.6% of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language equally most often at work and 1.3% a non-official language only.

Furthermore, 6.0% (1,148,980) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported working in English on a regular basis, 3.4% (645,075) in French on a regular basis and 0.0% (1,925) in the country's two official languages on a regular basis. In addition, 0.2% (34,290) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 reported using an official language and a non-official language on a regular basis at work and 2.2% (411,735) a non-official language only.

Table 10 Languages used at work, Canada

Table summary

This table presents the languages used most often and regularly at work. The column headings are: languages used at work; language used most often at work and language used regularly at work for Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are: Total population 15 years and over who worked since 2010; English only; French only; other language only; English and French; English and other language; French and other language; English, French and other language.

Table 10 Languages used at work
Languages used at work Language used most often Language used regularlyTable 1 Footnote 1
Canada Canada
number % number %
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Other than the language spoken most often.

Return to footnote 1-1 referrer

Total population aged 15 years and over who worked since 2010 19,133,310 100.0 2,242,010 11.7
English only 14,622,905 76.4 1,148,980 6.0
French only 3,831,535 20.0 645,075 3.4
Other language only 251,020 1.3 411,735 2.2
English and French 317,135 1.7 1,925 0.0
English and other language 94,100 0.5 15,125 0.1
French and other language 5,180 0.0 19,020 0.1
English, French and other language. 11,445 0.1 140 0.0
None ... ... 16,891,300 88.3

In Canada, the non-official languages most used, most often or regularly, with or without an official language, are Chinese languages, Spanish and Panjabi (Punjabi), which account respectively for 1.2% (224,195), 0.4% (82,050) and 0.4% (71,430) of the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011.

Table 11 Non-official languages used at work, Canada

Table summary

This table presents non-official languages used at work. The column headings are: languages used at work; language used at least regularly at work, language used most often at work and language used regularly at work for Canada, which are divided in number and percentage. The rows are the top non-official languages used at least regularly at work.

Table 11 Non-official languages used at work
Languages used at work Language used at least regularlyTable 2 Footnote 2 Language used most oftenTable 2 Footnote 2 Language used regularlyTable 2 Footnote 1,Table 2 Footnote 3
Canada Canada Canada
number % rank number % rank number % rank
Table note(s):
Footnote 1

Other than the language spoken most often.

Return to footnote 2-1 referrer

Footnote 2

Percentages calculated over the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011.

Return to footnote 2-2 referrer

Footnote 3

Percentages calculated over the population aged 15 years and over who worked in 2010 or 2011 and who declared one or more languages used regularly at work.

Return to footnote 2-3 referrer

Chinese languages 224,195 1.2 1 134,480 0.7 1 89,710 4.0 1
Spanish 82,050 0.4 2 24,595 0.1 3 57,450 2.6 2
Panjabi (Punjabi) 71,430 0.4 3 38,145 0.2 2 33,290 1.5 3
German 35,250 0.2 4 13,460 0.1 5 21,795 1.0 6
Tagalog (Pilipino,Filipino) 32,155 0.2 5 7,585 0.0 11 24,570 1.1 4
Income

Income composition

The total income for the population in private households can be broken down into two basic components: market incomeIncome Footnote 1 and government transfers.Income Footnote 2 In Canada, 87.6% of total income was from market income in 2010 and 12.4% was from government transfers. (Aggregate total income for Canada was 1.1 trillion dollars in 2010).

Figure 1 Income composition for the population in private households in 2010

Figure description

This stacked horizontal bar figure shows income composition for the population in private households. The y-axis is Canada and the provinces and territories. The x-axis is percentage of income composition (market income and government transfer payments).

Market income's main component was employment income. In Canada, it accounted for $85.20 of every $100 of market income.

For the two components of employment income, wages and salaries represented $80.20, and net income from self-employment, $5.00.

The other components of market income were smaller than employment income: in Canada, investment income represented $5.30 per $100 of market income, retirement income, $7.60 and $1.90 came from other private sources.

The government transfers received in Canada were Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan with $28.00 of every $100 of total government transfers received, Old Age Security (OAS) pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement ($24.80), Other income from government sources ($20.60), Employment Insurance benefits ($14.10), and Child benefits ($12.40).

Table 1 – Income composition for the population in private households in 2010, Canada

Table summary

This table shows income composition for the population in private households in 2010. The column headings are: income composition and Canada. The rows are: aggregate total income in millions of dollars which has main components of market income and government transfer payments. Market income is further divided into: employment income in percentage (including wages and salaries in percentage and self-employment income in percentage); investment income in percentage; retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities in percentage; other money income. Government transfer payments is further divided into: Canada / Quebec pension plan benefits in percentage; Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement in percentage; employment insurance benefits in percentage; child benefits in percentage and other income from government sources in percentage. Also included are income taxes paid (as a percent of total income) and after-tax income (as a percent of total income).

Table 1 – Income composition for the population in private households in 2010, Canada
Income composition Canada
Aggregate total income (million $) 1,053,582.1
Composition of total income in 2010 (%) 100.0
Market income (%) 87.6
Employment income (%) 74.7
Wages and salaries (%) 70.3
Self-employment income (%) 4.4
Investment income (%) 4.6
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (%) 6.7
Other money income (%) 1.7
Government transfer payments (%) 12.4
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (%) 3.5
Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement (%) 3.1
Employment Insurance benefits (%) 1.8
Child benefits (%) 1.5
Other income from government sources (%) 2.6
Income taxes paid – as a % of total income 16.4
After-tax income – as a % of total income 83.6

High total income

Among the Canadian population in private households aged 15 years and over, 10% had total incomes of more than $80,400 in 2010. To be in the top 5%, Canadians needed to have a total income of slightly above $102,300 and to be in the top 1% required just over $191,100, nearly seven times the national median income of $27,800.Income Footnote 3

The top 10% of Canadians made an average income of $134,900, with the top 5% making one third more ($179,800) and the top 1% almost three times that amount ($381,300). Meanwhile, the average income of all Canadians was $38,700.Income Footnote 3

A national map showing the spatial distribution of persons with total income in the top five percent is also available. Canada. Percentage of population in top five percent of total income in 2010 by 2011 census division (CD)

Employment income

Of those persons with employment income in Canada, 50.3% worked full year, full timeIncome Footnote 4 in 2010. The median employment income was $47,868 for these workers.

The top three most common occupations for those working full-year full-time in 2010 in Canada were Retail and wholesale trade managers; Retail salespersons; and Administrative assistants.

Table 2 – Median earnings of the most common full-year, full-time occupations in 2010, Canada

Table summary

The following table presents the most common occupations for full-year, full-time workers in 2010. The column headings are: population with earnings who worked full-year, full-time in 2010, Canada divided into number and median earnings in dollars. The rows are the most common occupations.

Table 2 – Median earnings of the most common full-year, full-time occupations in 2010, Canada
Population with earnings who worked full-year, full-time in 2010Income Footnote 5 Canada
number median earnings ($)
Retail and wholesale trade managers 271,690 42,697
Retail salespersons 249,170 30,249
Administrative assistants 189,605 39,143
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers 181,000 67,530
Transport truck drivers 165,065 45,417
Administrative officers 164,115 46,719
Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses 156,565 70,927
Financial auditors and accountants 145,330 62,765
Secondary school teachers 123,450 70,440
General office support workers 120,230 40,641
Managers in agriculture 113,355 19,877
Other customer and information services representatives 111,470 37,425
Information systems analysts and consultants 108,840 73,378
Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents 105,015 36,647
Automotive service technicians, truck and bus mechanics and mechanical repairers 99,365 45,002
Accounting and related clerks 93,085 39,994
Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates 92,840 35,707
Material handlers 92,210 38,046
Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical) 91,585 54,228
Early childhood educators and assistants 86,300 25,334

Family income

The median after-tax income of economic families in Canada in 2010 was $67,044, the median for couple families was $72,356; and for lone-parent families, $42,401. For persons not in economic families (persons living alone or with non relatives only), the median after-tax income was $25,761.

Table 3 – Median after-tax income in 2010 for economic families and persons not in economic families, Canada

Table summary

This table shows median after-tax income in 2010 by economic family structure and sex. The column headings are: economic family structure and sex, Canada divided into number and median after-tax income in dollars. The rows are: all economic families (couple families, lone-parent families, other economic families); persons not in economic families (males, females).

Table 3 – Median after-tax income in 2010 for economic families and persons not in economic families, Canada
Economic family structure and sex Canada
number median after-tax income ($)
All economic families 9,254,165 67,044
Couple families 7,701,030 72,356
Lone-parent families 1,335,435 42,401
Other economic families 217,700 55,484
Persons not in economic families 4,903,505 25,761
Males 2,362,280 28,197
Females 2,541,225 23,917

Figure 2 Median after-tax income in 2010 for Canada

Figure description

The following vertical bar figure shows the median after-tax income in 2010 by economic family structure and sex. The y-axis is the median after-tax income in dollars. The x-axis is economic family structure and sex including: all economic families; couple families; lone-parent families; other economic families; persons not in economic families; males not in economic families and females not in economic families.

Low incomeIncome Footnote 6

In the NHS, a relative measure is used to classify persons by income status: the low-income measure based on after-tax income (LIM-AT). For this measure, the income threshold is half the Canadian median of after-tax household income. The income has been adjusted to account for household size. Persons in households with a household income below this thresholdIncome Footnote 7 were considered to be in low income.

The proportion of the population in low income in Canada was 14.9%. For persons under 18, the rate was higher (17.3%) and for the population aged 65 years and over, it was lower at 13.4%.

Table 4 – Income status based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) in 2010, Canada

Table summary

This table shows income status based on the after-tax low-income measure in 2010. The column headings are: income status and Canada. The rows are: total - persons in private households for income status statistics (count); proportion in low income (based on LIM-AT) in percentage; under 18 years in percentage; under 6 years in percentage; 18 to 64 in percentage; 65 years and over in percentage.

Table 4 – Income status based on after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT) in 2010, Canada
Income status Canada
Total - Persons in private households for low income (count)Income Footnote 8 32,386,170
Proportion in low income (based on LIM-AT) (%) 14.9
Under 18 years (%) 17.3
Under 6 years (%) 18.1
18 to 64 years (%) 14.4
65 years and over (%) 13.4

A series of maps showing the proportion of the population in low income for each of the regions is also available:

Note(s):

Footnote 1

Market income includes income from all non-government sources such as employment, investments, private pensions and spousal or child support payments.

Income return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Government transfers include Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security (OAS) pension and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, Employment Insurance benefits, child benefits and other income from government sources.

Income return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

The population aged 15 years and over without income and those with negative income are included at the bottom of the distribution.

Income return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Full-year, full-time: worked 49 to 52 weeks, mainly full-time.

Income return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Only the most common occupations with at least 250 persons with earnings who worked full-year, full-time are presented here.

Income return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

The low-income estimates from the National Household Survey (NHS) are not directly comparable to estimates from other sources such as earlier censuses or the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics but comparisons of different groups or geographies with sufficient sample size within the NHS are of good quality.

Income return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

A household of four with after-tax income below $38,920 would be considered low income and, for a person living alone, the threshold was $19,460.

Income return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

For the purposes of low-income statistics, households in the territories and in First Nations communities were excluded. The use of a statistic based only on money income could be misleading in areas where there are substantial in-kind transfers or non-cash activities. In Canada, 466,155 persons in private households were excluded.

Income return to footnote 8 referrer

Housing

Housing

The number of households in Canada was 13,319,250. The homeownership rateHousing Footnote 1 in Canada was 69.0%. The census metropolitan areas (CMAs) with the highest homeownership rates were Oshawa (79.6%), Barrie (79.3%) and Kelowna (76.2%). The CMAs with the lowest homeownership rates were Sherbrooke (54.9%), Montréal (55.0%) and Trois-Rivières (58.0%).

Table 1 – Homeownership rate rank, Canada and census metropolitan areas

Table summary

This table shows census metropolitan areas in decreasing order of homeownership rate. The column headings are: census metropolitan area name; all households in number; owner households in number; homeownership rate in percentage. The rows are: Canada and census metropolitan areas.

Table 1 – Homeownership rate rank, Canada and census metropolitan areas
CMA name All households Owner households Homeownership rate
number number percentage
Canada 13,319,250 9,185,845 69.0
Oshawa 129,700 103,215 79.6
Barrie 68,495 54,345 79.3
Kelowna 74,950 57,090 76.2
Abbotsford - Mission 59,315 44,735 75.4
St. Catharines - Niagara 160,455 119,545 74.5
Brantford 52,725 39,035 74.0
Calgary 464,005 342,855 73.9
Peterborough 48,850 36,010 73.7
Windsor 126,870 92,695 73.1
Guelph 54,870 39,860 72.6
Thunder Bay 52,065 37,505 72.0
Hamilton 282,185 201,575 71.4
Regina 85,935 61,160 71.2
Saint John 52,130 36,990 71.0
Edmonton 450,795 318,260 70.6
Moncton 58,315 41,185 70.6
St. John's 79,025 55,545 70.3
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo 181,495 127,375 70.2
Saskatoon 104,290 72,105 69.1
Winnipeg 291,340 199,200 68.4
Toronto 1,989,695 1,358,620 68.3
Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury 67,770 46,050 68.0
Ottawa - Gatineau 498,790 338,725 67.9
Kingston 65,965 44,220 67.0
London 195,055 130,075 66.7
Vancouver 891,305 583,425 65.5
Victoria 153,395 99,910 65.1
Saguenay 69,485 44,520 64.1
Halifax 165,150 103,670 62.8
Québec 345,885 206,465 59.7
Trois-Rivières 70,140 40,705 58.0
Montréal 1,613,290 887,040 55.0
Sherbrooke 91,090 50,010 54.9

AffordabilityHousing Footnote 2

Households in Canada that paid 30% or more of household total income toward shelter costs represented 25.2% of non-farm, non-reserve households with total income greater than zero. The average monthly shelter cost was $1,050.

The CMAs with the highest proportion of households that paid 30% or more of total income towards shelter cost were Vancouver (33.5%), Toronto (31.8%), Victoria (31.1%) and Kelowna (31.0%). The CMAs with the lowest proportion were Saguenay (18.9%), Thunder Bay (19.1%) and Québec (20.1%). The average shelter cost for the CMA with the highest proportion exceeding the affordability threshold was $1,294 for Vancouver. The average shelter cost for the CMA with the lowest proportion exceeding the affordability threshold was $730 for Saguenay.

Table 2 – Housing affordability, for non-farm and non-reserve households, Canada and census metropolitan areas

Table summary

The table shows census metropolitan areas in decreasing order of percentage of households spending 30% or more of total income on shelter costs. The column headings are: census metropolitan area name; households spending 30% or more of 2010 total income on shelter costs in number and percentage and average monthly shelter cost in dollars. The rows are: Canada and census metropolitan areas.

Table 2 – Housing affordability, for non-farm and non-reserve households, Canada and census metropolitan areas
CMA name Households spending 30% or more of 2010 total income on shelter costsHousing Table 2 Footnote 1 Average monthly shelter cost
number percentage dollars
Canada 3,285,975 25.2 1,050
Vancouver 295,725 33.5 1,294
Toronto 631,420 31.8 1,366
Victoria 46,760 31.1 1,167
Kelowna 21,685 31.0 1,180
Abbotsford - Mission 16,925 29.1 1,195
Barrie 19,590 28.8 1,299
Montréal 443,855 27.6 943
London 51,060 26.4 1,010
Kingston 17,180 26.3 1,056
Peterborough 12,310 25.9 1,004
Halifax 41,790 25.4 1,037
Hamilton 71,490 25.4 1,132
St. Catharines - Niagara 40,360 25.3 979
Guelph 13,710 25.1 1,185
Calgary 115,345 25.0 1,339
Sherbrooke 22,560 24.9 772
Oshawa 32,235 24.9 1,294
Saskatoon 25,460 24.7 1,092
Brantford 12,270 24.6 1,026
Edmonton 109,860 24.6 1,243
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo 43,900 24.3 1,139
Windsor 30,200 23.9 927
Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury 15,255 22.6 997
Trois-Rivières 15,555 22.3 697
Regina 18,830 22.1 1,044
Ottawa - Gatineau 110,010 22.1 1,167
Moncton 12,720 21.9 907
St. John's 17,045 21.6 1,003
Saint John 11,090 21.3 869
Winnipeg 61,785 21.3 912
Québec 69,235 20.1 838
Thunder Bay 9,850 19.1 833
Saguenay 13,085 18.9 730

Table note(s):

Footnote 1

Excludes households with zero or negative income in 2010.

Housing: Return to footnote 2-1 referrer

Need for major repairsHousing Footnote 3

In Canada, 7.4% of households in Canada reported living in dwellings that required major repairs. The CMAs with the highest proportion of households reporting major repairs requirements were Winnipeg (9.2%), Regina (9.1%) and Saint John (9.1%). The CMAs with the lowest proportion were Barrie (4.5%), Kelowna (4.6%) and Guelph (5.1%).

Table 3 – Need for major repairs, Canada and census metropolitan areas

Table summary

This table shows census metropolitan areas in decreasing order of percentage of households reporting that their dwelling was in need of major repairs. The column headings are: census metropolitan area name; households reporting that their dwelling was in need of major repairs in number and percentage. The rows are: Canada and census metropolitan areas.

Table 3 – Need for major repairs, Canada and census metropolitan areas
CMA name Households reporting that their
dwelling was in need of major repairs
number percentage
Canada 982,200 7.4
Winnipeg 26,740 9.2
Regina 7,830 9.1
Saint John 4,760 9.1
Thunder Bay 4,565 8.8
Brantford 4,325 8.2
Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury 5,160 7.6
Halifax 12,260 7.4
Kingston 4,795 7.3
Peterborough 3,555 7.3
Montréal 113,825 7.1
St. Catharines - Niagara 11,050 6.9
Hamilton 19,065 6.8
Trois-Rivières 4,650 6.6
Vancouver 58,730 6.6
Windsor 8,210 6.5
Edmonton 29,330 6.5
Moncton 3,815 6.5
Ottawa - Gatineau 31,660 6.3
Saskatoon 6,370 6.1
Saguenay 4,160 6.0
St. John's 4,715 6.0
Toronto 118,415 6.0
London 11,685 6.0
Victoria 9,170 6.0
Québec 18,920 5.5
Abbotsford - Mission 3,180 5.4
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo 9,480 5.2
Oshawa 6,740 5.2
Sherbrooke 4,725 5.2
Calgary 23,940 5.2
Guelph 2,820 5.1
Kelowna 3,465 4.6
Barrie 3,100 4.5

Suitability

In Canada, 6.0% of households in Canada lived in dwellings that were not suitable; that is, the dwelling was crowded because there were not enough bedrooms based on the National Occupancy Standard.Housing Footnote 4 The CMAs with the highest proportion of households in dwellings that were not suitable were Toronto (11.2%), Vancouver (9.3%) and Winnipeg (7.4%). The CMAs with the lowest proportion were Saguenay (2.1%), Trois-Rivières (2.4%) and Moncton (2.6%).

Table 4 – Housing suitability, Canada and census metropolitan areas

Table summary

This table shows census metropolitan areas in decreasing order of percentage of households in dwellings that were not suitable. The column headings are: census metropolitan area name; households in dwellings that were not suitable in number and percentage. The rows are: Canada and census metropolitan areas.

Table 4 – Housing suitability, Canada and census metropolitan areas
CMA name Households in dwellings that were not suitable
number percentage
Canada 793,590 6.0
Toronto 223,660 11.2
Vancouver 83,265 9.3
Winnipeg 21,475 7.4
Abbotsford - Mission 4,255 7.2
Montréal 110,080 6.8
Edmonton 25,925 5.8
Hamilton 16,115 5.7
Guelph 3,055 5.6
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo 9,885 5.4
Saskatoon 5,510 5.3
Ottawa - Gatineau 26,335 5.3
Windsor 6,495 5.1
Calgary 23,705 5.1
Victoria 7,490 4.9
Regina 4,205 4.9
Oshawa 6,270 4.8
London 9,415 4.8
Brantford 2,525 4.8
St. Catharines - Niagara 6,910 4.3
Halifax 6,900 4.2
Kingston 2,665 4.0
Barrie 2,695 3.9
Peterborough 1,820 3.7
Thunder Bay 1,905 3.7
Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury 2,345 3.5
Kelowna 2,645 3.5
St. John's 2,680 3.4
Saint John 1,755 3.4
Sherbrooke 2,825 3.1
Québec 9,780 2.8
Moncton 1,530 2.6
Trois-Rivières 1,685 2.4
Saguenay 1,460 2.1

Condominium

In Canada, there were 1,615,485 households in dwellings that were part of a condominium development. Most condominiums were located in a few CMAs. The ten CMAs with the highest number of condominium dwellings represented 76.8% of all condominium dwellings in Canada. The most condominium dwellings were in Toronto (23.0%), followed by Vancouver (17.3%).

Table 5 – Condominium dwellings, Canada and the ten census metropolitan areas with the highest number of condominium dwellings

Table summary

This table shows census metropolitan areas in decreasing order of number of condominium dwellings for the ten CMAs with the highest number of condominiums. The column headings are: census metropolitan area name; number of occupied condominiums and proportion of all condominiums in Canada. The rows are: Canada and census metropolitan areas.

Table 5 – Condominium dwellings, Canada and the ten census metropolitan areas with the highest number of condominium dwellings
CMA name Number of occupied condominiums Proportion of all condominiums in Canada
number percentage
Canada 1,615,485 100.0
Toronto 371,750 23.0
Vancouver 279,535 17.3
Montréal 212,880 13.2
Calgary 94,635 5.9
Edmonton 87,470 5.4
Ottawa - Gatineau 65,075 4.0
Québec 41,550 2.6
Hamilton 36,410 2.3
Victoria 28,330 1.8
London 23,630 1.5

Note(s):

Footnote 1

The 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimate for homeownership in Alberta was statistically higher than the comparable rate in the 2010 Survey of Labour Income Dynamics (SLID). The 2011 NHS estimate of the homeownership rate for other provinces and for Canada was not statistically different when compared to the 2010 SLID. For more information, please consult the Housing Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011007.

Housing return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

In 1986, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) and the provinces agreed to use the 30% threshold to measure affordability for the purposes of defining need for social housing. This agreement was reached during the development of the federal/provincial social housing programs.

Housing return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

The need for major repairs is based on the judgment of the respondent. Examples of major repairs provided to respondents included defective plumbing or electrical wiring, structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings, etc.

Housing return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Housing suitability and the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) were developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) through consultations with provincial housing agencies.

Housing return to footnote 4 referrer

Related data

Related data

Data quality note:

Footnote DQF

Excludes National Household Survey data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

Return to footnote ! referrer

Date modified: