2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Tabulation: Ethnic Origin (101), Age Groups (10), Sex (3) and Selected Demographic, Cultural, Labour Force, Educational and Income Characteristics (327) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey

Data table

Select data categories for this table


This table details ethnic origin , age groups , sex and selected demographic, cultural, labour force, educational and income characteristics for the population in private households in Edmundston
Global non-response rate (GNR)Footnote 2 = 25.4 %
Selected demographic, cultural, educational, labour force and income characteristics (327) Sex (3)
Total - Sex Male Female
Total population aged 15 years and over in private households by marital statusFootnote 3 18,205 8,730 9,475
Married or living with a common-law partner 11,595 5,795 5,805
Married (and not separated) 8,375 4,180 4,195
Living common law 3,220 1,610 1,615
Not married and not living with a common-law partner 6,605 2,935 3,670
Single (never legally married) 3,765 2,050 1,715
Separated 720 415 310
Divorced 915 315 600
Widowed 1,210 155 1,050
Total - Census family statusFootnote 4 21,075 10,070 11,000
Married spouses 8,300 4,155 4,150
Common-law partners 3,220 1,610 1,615
Lone parents 830 195 635
Children in census families 4,995 2,590 2,405
Persons not in census familiesFootnote 5 3,720 1,525 2,195
Total - Mobility status 1 year agoFootnote 6 20,880 9,995 10,880
Non-movers 18,755 9,060 9,700
Movers 2,120 930 1,185
Non-migrants 1,570 690 880
Migrants 550 245 305
Internal migrants 525 235 295
Intraprovincial migrants 365 165 205
Interprovincial migrants 155 65 95
External migrants 25 0 0
Total - Mobility status 5 years agoFootnote 7 20,145 9,625 10,520
Non-movers 14,605 7,085 7,520
Movers 5,540 2,540 3,000
Non-migrants 3,760 1,695 2,070
Migrants 1,775 840 930
Internal migrants 1,655 765 890
Intraprovincial migrants 1,140 525 615
Interprovincial migrants 520 245 275
External migrants 120 75 45
Total population by mother tongueFootnote 8 21,070 10,070 11,000
English 880 410 475
French 19,925 9,495 10,425
Non-official language 140 90 50
English and French 125 80 45
English and non-official language 0 0 0
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population by language spoken most often at homeFootnote 9 21,070 10,075 11,000
English 705 325 375
French 20,210 9,655 10,555
Non-official language 40 25 0
English and French 75 40 35
English and non-official language 0 0 0
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population by knowledge of official languagesFootnote 10 21,075 10,070 11,000
English only 230 105 125
French only 8,560 3,885 4,680
English and French 12,275 6,080 6,195
Neither English nor French 0 0 0
Total population aged 15 years and over by language used most often at workFootnote 11 11,720 6,060 5,660
English 845 510 330
French 10,210 5,200 5,015
Non-official language 0 0 0
Aboriginal 0 0 0
Non-Aboriginal 0 0 0
English and French 655 350 315
English and non-official language 0 0 0
French and non-official language 0 0 0
English, French and non-official language 0 0 0
Total population by citizenshipFootnote 12 21,075 10,075 11,000
Canadian citizens 20,790 9,930 10,855
Canadian citizens only 20,550 9,815 10,740
Citizens of Canada and at least one other country 240 120 115
Not Canadian citizensFootnote 13 285 140 145
Total immigrant population in private households by age at immigrationFootnote 14 660 335 325
Under 5 years 120 50 65
5 to 14 years 160 80 80
15 to 24 years 175 85 95
25 to 44 years 175 100 80
45 years and over 30 25 0
Total population in private households by immigrant status and selected places of birthFootnote 15 21,075 10,075 11,000
Non-immigrantsFootnote 16 20,390 9,735 10,650
Born in province of residence 18,005 8,775 9,230
Born outside province of residence 2,385 965 1,425
ImmigrantsFootnote 17 660 340 325
Americas 485 235 250
United States 465 220 240
Jamaica 0 0 0
Guyana 0 0 0
Haiti 0 0 0
Mexico 0 0 0
Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 0
Colombia 0 0 0
El Salvador 0 0 0
Peru 0 0 0
Chile 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Americas 15 15 0
Europe 90 55 30
United KingdomFootnote 18 0 0 0
Italy 0 0 0
Germany 0 0 0
Poland 0 0 0
Portugal 0 0 0
Netherlands 0 0 0
France 30 25 0
Romania 40 30 0
Russian Federation 0 0 0
Greece 0 0 0
Ukraine 0 0 0
Croatia 0 0 0
Hungary 0 0 0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0 0
Serbia 0 0 0
Ireland, Republic of 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Europe 0 0 0
Africa 35 25 15
Morocco 20 0 0
Algeria 0 0 0
Egypt 0 0 0
South Africa, Republic of 0 0 0
Nigeria 0 0 0
Ethiopia 0 0 0
Kenya 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Africa 0 0 0
Asia 45 20 30
India 0 0 0
ChinaFootnote 19 0 0 0
Philippines 0 0 0
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 0 0 0
Viet NamFootnote 20 0 0 0
Pakistan 0 0 0
Sri Lanka 0 0 0
IranFootnote 21 0 0 0
Korea, SouthFootnote 22 0 0 0
Lebanon 0 0 0
Taiwan 0 0 0
Iraq 0 0 0
Bangladesh 0 0 0
Afghanistan 0 0 0
Japan 0 0 0
Turkey 0 0 0
Other places of birth in Asia 30 0 0
Oceania and otherFootnote 23 0 0 0
Fiji 0 0 0
Other places of birthFootnote 24 0 0 0
Non-permanent residentsFootnote 25 20 0 20
Total population in private households by generation statusFootnote 26 21,070 10,075 11,000
First generationFootnote 27 725 345 380
Second generationFootnote 28 860 465 395
Third generation or moreFootnote 29 19,490 9,260 10,225
Total population by selected religionsFootnote 30 21,075 10,075 11,000
Buddhist 0 0 0
Christian 20,300 9,680 10,620
Anglican 25 0 0
Baptist 50 20 30
Catholic 19,740 9,420 10,320
Christian Orthodox 50 40 0
Lutheran 0 0 0
Pentecostal 240 85 150
Presbyterian 0 0 0
United Church 25 0 0
Other Christian 175 95 85
Hindu 10 0 0
Jewish 0 0 0
Muslim 90 40 45
Sikh 0 0 0
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 10 10 0
Other religions 25 0 15
No religious affiliation 640 330 305
Total population in private households by visible minority 21,075 10,070 11,000
Total visible minority populationFootnote 31 150 100 50
South AsianFootnote 32 45 45 0
Chinese 0 0 0
Black 30 0 20
Filipino 20 0 0
Latin American 0 0 0
Arab 30 30 0
Southeast AsianFootnote 33 0 0 0
West AsianFootnote 34 0 0 0
Korean 0 0 0
Japanese 0 0 0
Visible minority, n.i.e.Footnote 35 0 0 0
Multiple visible minoritiesFootnote 36 0 0 0
Not a visible minorityFootnote 37 20,925 9,975 10,955
Total population in private households by Aboriginal identity 21,075 10,070 11,000
Aboriginal identityFootnote 38 410 205 210
First Nations (North American Indian) single identityFootnote 39 240 130 105
Métis single identity 115 55 65
Inuk (Inuit) single identity 0 0 0
Multiple Aboriginal identitiesFootnote 40 0 0 0
Aboriginal identities not included elsewhereFootnote 41 55 15 40
Non-Aboriginal identity 20,660 9,870 10,790
Total population aged 25 to 64 years by highest certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 42 12,650 6,085 6,565
No certificate, diploma or degree 2,210 1,045 1,160
High school diploma or equivalentFootnote 43 3,390 1,755 1,630
Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 44 7,050 3,290 3,770
Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diplomaFootnote 45 2,205 1,345 865
College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma 2,255 955 1,300
University certificate or diploma below bachelor levelFootnote 46 530 150 375
University certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above 2,065 835 1,230
Bachelor's degree 1,425 570 860
University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor levelFootnote 47 640 265 370
Total population aged 15 years and over by major field of study - Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) 2011Footnote 48 18,205 8,730 9,480
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degreeFootnote 49 9,425 4,490 4,940
Education 810 260 555
Visual and performing arts, and communications technologies 135 55 80
Humanities 150 90 65
Social and behavioural sciences and law 445 145 300
Business, management and public administration 1,960 565 1,395
Physical and life sciences and technologies 125 85 40
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 180 130 45
Architecture, engineering, and related technologies 2,090 1,990 100
Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 325 290 35
Health and related fieldsFootnote 50 1,785 340 1,445
Personal, protective and transportation services 740 290 450
Other fields of studyFootnote 51 20 0 20
Total population aged 15 years and over by location of study compared with province or territory of residenceFootnote 52 18,205 8,725 9,475
No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 9,425 4,490 4,940
With postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree 8,775 4,235 4,535
Location of study inside Canada 8,530 4,075 4,455
Same as province or territory of residence 6,805 3,230 3,575
Another province or territory 1,725 840 885
Location of study outside Canada 245 165 80
Total population aged 15 years and over by labour force statusFootnote 53 18,205 8,730 9,475
In the labour force 10,985 5,680 5,305
Employed 9,865 5,000 4,870
Unemployed 1,120 680 440
Not in the labour force 7,215 3,045 4,170
Participation rate 60.3 65.1 56.0
Employment rate 54.2 57.3 51.4
Unemployment rate 10.2 12.0 8.3
Total labour force aged 15 years and over by class of workerFootnote 54 10,985 5,685 5,310
Class of worker - not applicableFootnote 55 210 80 125
All classes of workerFootnote 56 10,780 5,600 5,180
Employee 10,080 5,180 4,900
Self-employedFootnote 57 695 420 280
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011Footnote 58 10,990 5,685 5,305
Occupation - not applicableFootnote 59 210 80 125
All occupationsFootnote 60 10,780 5,600 5,180
0 Management occupations 765 485 285
1 Business, finance and administration occupations 1,515 435 1,085
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 415 375 45
3 Health occupations 1,170 225 945
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services 1,310 360 950
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 175 85 85
6 Sales and service occupations 2,685 1,090 1,595
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 1,765 1,730 35
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 235 200 30
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities 740 610 125
Total labour force population aged 15 years and over by industry - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007Footnote 61 10,985 5,680 5,310
Industry - not applicableFootnote 62 210 85 130
All industriesFootnote 63 10,780 5,600 5,180
11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 380 315 65
21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 0 0 0
22 Utilities 50 15 0
23 Construction 555 515 35
31-33 Manufacturing 1,435 1,140 295
41 Wholesale trade 225 155 70
44-45 Retail trade 1,500 750 755
48-49 Transportation and warehousing 530 435 100
51 Information and cultural industries 255 130 125
52 Finance and insurance 210 50 155
53 Real estate and rental and leasing 40 20 20
54 Professional, scientific and technical services 245 150 90
55 Management of companies and enterprises 0 0 0
56 Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 235 145 90
61 Educational services 740 300 435
62 Health care and social assistance 2,060 415 1,645
71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 180 110 70
72 Accommodation and food services 550 175 375
81 Other services (except public administration) 445 210 240
91 Public administration 1,140 575 565
Population aged 15 years and over who worked full year, full time and with employment income in 2010Footnote 64 5,800 3,170 2,630
Median employment income in 2010 $ 40,804 44,076 36,905
Average employment income in 2010 $ 45,436 48,983 41,168
Total income in 2010 of population aged 15 years and overFootnote 65 18,205 8,725 9,480
Without income 625 235 390
With income 17,585 8,495 9,085
Under $5,000Footnote 66 1,060 425 635
$5,000 to $9,999 1,905 710 1,195
$10,000 to $14,999 1,750 550 1,200
$15,000 to $19,999 2,315 900 1,415
$20,000 to $29,999 2,955 1,225 1,735
$30,000 to $39,999 2,525 1,465 1,060
$40,000 to $49,999 1,815 1,170 645
$50,000 to $59,999 1,015 585 435
$60,000 to $79,999 1,580 1,015 565
$80,000 to $99,999 335 220 115
$100,000 and over 325 240 90
$100,000 to $124,999 140 110 35
$125,000 and over 185 130 55
Median income $Footnote 67 25,562 33,137 20,557
Average income $Footnote 68 31,920 37,469 26,734
After-tax income in 2010 of population 15 years and overFootnote 69 18,205 8,730 9,475
Without after-tax income 625 230 395
With after-tax income 17,580 8,495 9,085
Under $5,000Footnote 70 1,130 420 710
$5,000 to $9,999 1,890 710 1,180
$10,000 to $14,999 1,810 570 1,240
$15,000 to $19,999 2,535 985 1,545
$20,000 to $29,999 3,675 1,735 1,945
$30,000 to $39,999 2,915 1,760 1,150
$40,000 to $49,999 1,470 900 565
$50,000 to $59,999 1,245 790 455
$60,000 to $79,999 595 385 205
$80,000 to $99,999 165 115 50
$100,000 and over 160 115 45
Median after-tax income $Footnote 71 23,777 29,018 19,428
Average after-tax income $Footnote 72 27,612 31,982 23,526
Composition of total income in 2010 of population 15 years and over %Footnote 73 100.0 100.0 100.0
Market income %Footnote 74 81.1 84.6 76.5
Employment income %Footnote 75 68.8 70.2 66.8
Wages and salaries %Footnote 76 65.6 66.2 64.8
Self-employment income %Footnote 77 3.2 4.1 1.9
Investment income %Footnote 78 2.0 2.2 1.7
Retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities %Footnote 79 8.5 10.4 6.2
Other money income %Footnote 80 1.8 1.7 1.8
Government transfer payments %Footnote 81 18.9 15.5 23.5
Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits %Footnote 82 5.4 5.1 5.9
Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement %Footnote 83 5.1 3.5 7.3
Employment Insurance benefits %Footnote 84 4.5 4.6 4.4
Child benefits %Footnote 85 1.3 0.2 2.7
Other income from government sources %Footnote 86 2.6 2.1 3.1
Income taxes paid as a % of total incomeFootnote 87 13.5 14.6 12.0
After-tax income as a % of total incomeFootnote 88 86.5 85.4 88.0
Net capital gains or losses as a % of total incomeFootnote 89 0.1 0.1 0.1
Total population by income status in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measureFootnote 90 21,070 10,075 11,000
Population for the income status based on after-tax low-income measure 20,865 9,970 10,895
Low-income population 4,015 1,660 2,350
Prevalence of low income % 19.2 16.6 21.6
Other population 16,850 8,310 8,545
Concept not applicableFootnote 91 205 105 105

Symbol(s)

Symbol ..

not available for a specific reference period

..

Symbol ...

not applicable

...

Symbol x

suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act

x

Symbol F

too unreliable to be published

F

Footnote(s)

Footnote 1

This is a total population estimate. The sum of the ethnic groups in this table is greater than the total population estimate because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the NHS.

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Footnote 2

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) estimates, the global non-response rate (GNR) is used as an indicator of data quality. This indicator combines complete non-response (household) and partial non-response (question) into a single rate. The value of the GNR is presented to users. A smaller GNR indicates a lower risk of non-response bias and as a result, lower risk of inaccuracy. The threshold used for estimates' suppression is a GNR of 50% or more. For more information, please refer to the National Household Survey User Guide, 2011.

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Footnote 3

Marital status
Refers to the marital status of the person, taking into account his/her common-law status. Persons who are married or living common law may be of opposite sex or of the same sex. The classification is as follows:
Married (and not separated): A person who is married and has not separated or obtained a divorce, and whose spouse is living.

Common-law: A person who is living with another person as a couple but who is not legally married to that person.

Separated: A person who is married but who no longer lives with his/her spouse (for any reason other than illness, work or school) and who has not obtained a divorce. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Divorced: A person who has obtained a legal divorce and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Widowed: A person who has lost his/her spouse through death and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

Single (never legally married): A person who has never married or a person whose marriage has been annulled and who has not remarried. Persons living common law are not included in this category.

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Footnote 4

Classification of persons according to whether or not they are members of a census family and the status they have in the census family (a census family is composed of a married couple or two persons living common law, with or without children, or of a lone parent living with at least one child in the same dwelling). A person can be a married spouse, a common-law partner, a lone parent, a child or a person not in a census family.

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Footnote 5

Persons not in census families may live with relatives (without forming a census family with them), they may live with non-relatives only or they may live alone.

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Footnote 6

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 7

Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

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Footnote 8

Refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 9

Refers to the language spoken most often at home by the individual on May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 10

Refers to the ability to conduct a conversation in English only, in French only, in both English and French, or in neither English nor French.

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Footnote 11

Population by language used most often at work.

Refers to the language used most often at work, as reported on May 10, 2011 by the individuals aged 15 years and over who worked since January 1, 2010.

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Footnote 12

Citizenship refers to the legal citizenship status of a person. Citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. A person may have more than one citizenship. A person may be stateless, that is, they may have no citizenship.

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Footnote 13

Includes persons who are stateless.

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Footnote 14

Age at immigration refers to the age at which an immigrant first obtained landed immigrant/permanent resident status. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live permanently in Canada by immigration authorities.

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Footnote 15

The places of birth selected are the most frequently reported by immigrants at the Canada level.

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Footnote 16

Non-immigrant refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth.

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Footnote 17

Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Most immigrants are born outside Canada, but a small number are born in Canada. In the 2011 National Household Survey, 'Immigrants' includes immigrants who landed in Canada prior to May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 18

The official name of United Kingdom is United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. United Kingdom includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland (excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and British Overseas Territories).

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Footnote 19

China excludes Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region.

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Footnote 20

The official name of Viet Nam is Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

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Footnote 21

The official name of Iran is Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Footnote 22

The official name of South Korea is Republic of Korea.

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Footnote 23

The category 'Oceania and other' includes places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 24

The category 'Other places of birth' includes other places of birth in Oceania and responses not included elsewhere, such as 'born at sea.'

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Footnote 25

Non-permanent resident refers to a person from another country who has a work or study permit, or who is a refugee claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them.

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Footnote 26

Generation status refers to whether or not the person or the person's parents were born in Canada. It identifies persons as being first generation, second generation or third generation or more.

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Footnote 27

'First generation' includes persons who were born outside Canada. For the most part, these are people who are now, or have ever been, immigrants to Canada.

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Footnote 28

'Second generation' includes persons who were born in Canada and had at least one parent born outside Canada. For the most part, these are the children of immigrants.

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Footnote 29

'Third generation or more' includes persons who were born in Canada with both parents born in Canada.

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Footnote 30

Religion refers to the person's self-identification as having a connection or affiliation with any religious denomination, group, body, sect, cult or other religiously defined community or system of belief. Religion is not limited to formal membership in a religious organization or group. Persons without a religious connection or affiliation can self-identify as atheist, agnostic or humanist, or can provide another applicable response.

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Footnote 31

The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.'

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Footnote 32

For example, 'East Indian,' 'Pakistani,' 'Sri Lankan,' etc.

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Footnote 33

For example, 'Vietnamese,' 'Cambodian,' 'Malaysian,' 'Laotian,' etc.

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Footnote 34

For example, 'Iranian,' 'Afghan,' etc.

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Footnote 35

The abbreviation 'n.i.e.' means 'not included elsewhere.' Includes respondents who reported a write-in response such as 'Guyanese,' 'West Indian,' 'Tibetan,' 'Polynesian,' 'Pacific Islander,' etc.

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Footnote 36

Includes respondents who reported more than one visible minority group by checking two or more mark-in circles, e.g., 'Black' and 'South Asian.'

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Footnote 37

Includes respondents who reported 'Yes' to the Aboriginal identity question (Question 18) as well as respondents who were not considered to be members of a visible minority group.

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Footnote 38

'Aboriginal identity' includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

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Footnote 39

Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the National Household Survey (NHS). In 2011, there were a total of 36 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were 'incompletely enumerated' in the NHS. For these reserves or settlements, NHS enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed, or was not possible because of natural events (specifically forest fires in Northern Ontario). For additional information, please refer to the Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, National Household Survey (NHS), 2011.

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Footnote 40

'Multiple Aboriginal identities' includes persons who reported being any two or all three of the following: First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit).

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Footnote 41

'Aboriginal identities not included elsewhere' includes persons who did not report being First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) but who did report Registered or Treaty Indian status and/or membership in a First Nation or Indian band.

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Footnote 42

'Highest certificate, diploma or degree' refers to the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed based on a hierarchy which is generally related to the amount of time spent 'in-class.' For postsecondary completers, a university education is considered to be a higher level of schooling than a college education, while a college education is considered to be a higher level of education than in the trades. Although some trades requirements may take as long or longer to complete than a given college or university program, the majority of time is spent in on-the-job paid training and less time is spent in the classroom.

For further definitions, refer to the National Household Survey Dictionary, Catalogue no. 99-000-X. For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 43

'High school diploma or equivalent' includes persons who have graduated from a secondary school or equivalent. It excludes persons with a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 44

'Postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes 'apprenticeship or trades certificates or diplomas,' 'college, CEGEP or other non-university certificates or diplomas' and university certificates, diplomas and degrees.

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Footnote 45

'Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma' includes Registered Apprenticeship certificates (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) and other trades certificates or diplomas such as pre-employment or vocational certificates and diplomas from brief trade programs completed at community colleges, institutes of technology, vocational centres, and similar institutions.

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Footnote 46

Comparisons with other data sources suggest that the category 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' was over-reported in the NHS. This category likely includes some responses that are actually college certificates or diplomas, bachelor's degrees or other types of education (e.g., university transfer programs, bachelor's programs completed in other countries, incomplete bachelor's programs, non-university professional designations). We recommend users interpret the results for the 'University certificate or diploma below the bachelor's level' category with caution.

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Footnote 47

'University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level' includes the categories 'University certificate or diploma above bachelor level,' 'Degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine or optometry,' 'Master's degree' and 'Earned doctorate.'

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Footnote 48

'Major field of study' is defined as the main discipline or subject of learning. It is collected for the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school or secondary school level and classified according to the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Canada 2011. This variable shows the 'primary groupings,' a CIP variant.



For more information on the CIP classification, see the Classification of Instructional Programs, Canada 2011, Catalogue no. 12-590-X available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/concepts/classification-eng.htm.



For any comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable, refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 49

'No postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree' includes persons who have not completed a registered apprenticeship certificate (including Certificate of Qualification, Journeyperson's designation) or other trades certificate or diploma, a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma, or a university certificate, diploma or degree.

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Footnote 50

Called 'Health, parks, recreation and fitness' in CIP Canada 2000.

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Footnote 51

Includes 'Multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies, other.'

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Footnote 52

'Location of study compared with province or territory of residence' indicates whether the 'Location of study' is the same as the province or territory of residence in 2011, a different Canadian province or territory, or outside Canada. 'Location of study' refers to the province, territory or country of the institution where the highest certificate, diploma or degree above the high school level was completed.



Users should be aware that some respondents may have reported the physical location of study rather than the location of the certificate, diploma or degree-granting institution. This could affect the responses of those who obtained a certificate, diploma or degree through a joint program or by distance learning with credentials granted in another province or country. In particular, a number of persons reported a location of study for a university credential in one of the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), even though there were no educational institutions in the territories with the authority to grant university degrees.



For any other comments on collection, dissemination or data quality for this variable or 'Location of study,' refer to the Education Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011006.

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Footnote 53

Refers to whether a person was employed, unemployed or not in the labour force during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

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In the past, this variable was called Labour force activity.

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Footnote 54

Refers to whether an employed person is an employee or is self-employed. The self-employed include persons with or without a business, as well as unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 55

Includes unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 56

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 57

Includes self-employed with an incorporated business and self-employed with an unincorporated business. Also included among the self-employed are unpaid family workers.

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Footnote 58

Refers to the kind of work performed by persons during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. The 2011 National Household Survey occupation data are produced according to the NOC 2011.

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Footnote 59

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 60

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 61

Refers to the general nature of the business carried out in the establishment where the person worked. The 2011 National Household Survey industry data are produced according to the NAICS 2007.

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Footnote 62

Unemployed persons aged 15 years and over who have never worked for pay or in self-employment or who had last worked prior to January 1, 2010 only.

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Footnote 63

Experienced labour force refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed and the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011.

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Footnote 64

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2010 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.


Net non-farm income from unincorporated business or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution, ranked by size of income, into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) with income in that group.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

The above concept and procedures also apply in the calculation of these statistics for earnings.

Work activity in 2010 - Refers to the number of weeks in which a person worked for pay or in self-employment in 2010 at all jobs held, even if only for a few hours, and whether these weeks were mostly full time (30 hours or more per week) or mostly part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 65

Total income - Total income refers to monetary receipts from certain sources, before income taxes and deductions, during calendar year 2010. It includes employment income from wages, salaries, tips, commissions and net income from self-employment (for both unincorporated farm and non-farm activities); income from government sources, such as social assistance, child benefits, employment insurance, old age security pension, Canada or Quebec pension plan benefits and disability income; income from employer and personal pension sources, such as private pensions and payments from annuities and RRIFs; income from investment sources, such as dividends and interest on bonds, accounts, GICs and mutual funds; and other regular cash income, such as child support payments received, spousal support payments (alimony) received and scholarships. The monetary receipts included are those that tend to be of a regular and recurring nature. It excludes one-time receipts, such as lottery winnings, gambling winnings, cash inheritances, lump sum insurance settlements, capital gains and RRSP withdrawals. Capital gains are excluded because they are not by their nature regular and recurring. It is further assumed that they are less likely to be fully spent in the period in which they are received, unlike income that is regular and recurring. Also excluded are employer's contributions to registered pension plans, Canada and Quebec pension plans, and employment insurance. Finally, voluntary inter-household transfers, imputed rent, goods and services produced for barter, and goods produced for own consumption are excluded from this total income definition.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 66

Including loss.

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Footnote 67

For population with income.

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Footnote 68

For population with income.

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Footnote 69

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2010.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the individuals with income in that group (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years).

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals aged 15 years and over who reported income for 2010. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males aged 45 to 54 years) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median and average incomes of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least aged 15 years and who have an income (positive or negative).

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 70

Including loss.

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Footnote 71

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 72

For population with after-tax income.

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Footnote 73

Composition of income - The composition of the total income of a population group or a geographic area refers to the relative share of each income source or group of sources, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate total income of that group or area.

Total income - Total of income from all sources, including employment income, income from government programs, pension income, investment income and any other money income.

Age - Refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2011.

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Footnote 74

Market income - Refers to the sum of employment income (wages and salaries, net farm income and net income from non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice), investment income, retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities (including those from RRSPs and RRIFs) and other money income. It is equivalent to total income before tax minus all government transfers and is also referred to as income before transfers and taxes.

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Footnote 75

Earnings or employment income - Total wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

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Footnote 76

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2010. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

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Footnote 77

Self-employment net income - Refers to the total amount received by persons aged 15 years and over during calendar year 2010 as net farm income from self-employment, or net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2010 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2010, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm-support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (for example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the AgriInvest and AgriStability programs. The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2010 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non-relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

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Footnote 78

Investment income - Refers to interest received during calendar year 2010 from deposits in banks, trust companies, cooperatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, etc., as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures, and all dividends from both Canadian and foreign corporate stocks and mutual funds. Also included is other investment income from either Canadian or foreign sources, such as net rents from real estate, mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies. Does not include capital gains or losses.

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Footnote 79

Retirement pensions - Refers to all regular income received by the respondent during calendar year 2010 as the result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers. It includes payments received from all annuities, including payments from a Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF), a matured Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed-term annuity, or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers; annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, an insurance company, etc. Does not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits or withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of over-contributions.

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Footnote 80

Other money income - Refers to regular cash income received during calendar year 2010 and not reported in any of the other sources listed on the questionnaire. For example, severance pay and retirement allowances, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants, and artists' project grants are included.

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Footnote 81

Government transfer payments - Refers to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2010. This variable is derived by summing the amounts reported in:

- the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement, Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor
- benefits from Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- child benefits
- other income from government sources.

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Footnote 82

Benefits from Canada or Quebec pension plan - Refers to benefits received during calendar year 2010 from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (For example, retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions). Does not include lump-sum death benefits.

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Footnote 83

Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplement - Refers to Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements paid to persons aged 65 years and over, and to the Allowance or Allowance for the survivor paid to 60- to 64-year-old spouses of old age security recipients or widow(er)s by the federal government during the calendar year 2010.

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Footnote 84

Benefits from employment insurance - Refers to total Employment Insurance benefits received during calendar year 2010, before income tax deductions. It includes benefits for unemployment, sickness, maternity, paternity, adoption, work sharing, retraining and benefits to self-employed fishers received under the federal Employment Insurance Program or the Quebec Parental Insurance Program.

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Footnote 85

Child benefits - Refers to payments received under the Canada Child Tax Benefit program during calendar year 2010 by parents with dependent children under 18 years of age. Included with the Canada Child Tax Benefit is the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) for low-income families with children. The NCBS is the federal contribution to the National Child Benefit (NCB), a joint initiative of federal, provincial and territorial governments. Also included in this variable are child benefits, child disability benefits and earned income supplements provided by certain provinces and territories and the Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).

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Footnote 86

Other income from government sources - Refers to all transfer payments, excluding those covered as a separate income source (Canada Pension Plan or Quebec Pension Plan benefits, Old Age Security pensions and Guaranteed Income Supplements, Employment Insurance benefits and child benefits) received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal programs during 2010.

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Footnote 87

Income tax paid - Refers to all federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid on 2010 income. Federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid refer to taxes on income, after taking into account exemptions, deductions, non-refundable tax credits and the Quebec abatement. These taxes are obtained from the income tax files for persons who allowed access to their income tax data and from direct responses on the questionnaire for others.

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Footnote 88

After-tax income - Refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial taxes paid for 2010.

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Footnote 89

Net capital gains or losses -
Refers to the net gains received or losses incurred during calendar year 2010 from the sale of capital property. This represents the proceeds of disposition minus the adjusted cost base of the property and outlays and expenses incurred to sell the property. Capital property includes depreciable property and any property which, if sold, would result in a capital gain or loss (for example, cottages, buildings and securities such as mutual funds).

Non-taxable capital gains or losses on the sale of a principal residence are excluded.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the definition of Total income as published in standard products.

Net capital gains or losses are not included in the concept of total income but are expressed here as a percentage to obtain a relative measure of size.

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Footnote 90

Low income can be measured in several different ways in household surveys. For the standard products of the National Household Survey, the line chosen is a relative measure: the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT).

For this measure, the income used is after-tax income of households. There are no regional variations to account for prices or cost of living differences: all applicable households in Canada face the same line adjusted for household size. This line is set at half the median of adjusted household after-tax income. To account for potential economies of scale, the income of households with more than one member is divided by the square root of the size of the household.

All household members are considered to share the household income and are attributed the same income status.

Note: Low-income estimates in the 2011 National Household Survey

For the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), low-income statistics are presented based on the after-tax low-income measure (LIM-AT). This measure is not related to the low-income cut-offs (LICO) presented in the 2006 Census and prevalence rates are conceptually not comparable. Because of the sensitivity of certain income indicators to differences in methodology and response patterns, direct comparisons to establish trends with low-income estimates from other household surveys, administrative programs or the 2006 Census are discouraged. The prevalence rates observed in the NHS at the national level are generally 1 to 2 percentage points higher than seen for similar concepts in other programs. However, analysis of the NHS data suggests that it is valid to compare low-income data for different sub-populations within the NHS (i.e., for different geographic areas or demographic groups). For more information, refer to the Income Reference Guide, National Household Survey, Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011006.

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Footnote 91

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting or fishing) could have made the interpretation of low-income rates more difficult.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-010-X2011036.

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